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GSM Global System for Mobiles

TOPICS
GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
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TOPICS
GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
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Telecom Basics
Communication Voice and Data Analog and Digital Circuit Switched and Packet Switched Media - Copper Wire, Co-axial cable, Air, Optical Fibre Networks -PSTN, ISDN, PDN and Mobile Networks

Background to GSM
1G : Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)
Analog, Circuit Switched, FDMA, FDD

2G : Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service (D-AMPS)


Digital, Circuit Switched, FDMA, FDD

2G : Global System for Mobile (GSM)


Digital, Circuit Switched, FDMA and TDMA, FDD

2G : Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)


Digital, Circuit Switched, CDMA, FDD

GSM History

Development of the GSM Standard


1982: Groupe Spcial Mobile (GSM) created Description of GSM features 1993: 1985: List of recommendations settled 1995: The GSM-MoU has 62 signatories in 39 countries worldwide. Specifications of GSM phase 2 are frozen. GSM MoU joins 3GPP (UMTS) GPRS Trials begins 1992: Official commercial launch of GSM service in Europe. First Launch in Finland 1984:

1987:

Initial MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) aside the drafting of technical specifications was signed by network operators of 13 countries: Validation and trials, of the radio interface. First system trials are demonstrated at the Telecom 91 exhibition.

1999:

1988:

2000:

480M GSM Network operators Worldwide First GPRS Networks roll out

1991:

End 2002: 792M GSM Net work Operators Worldwide 7

GSM Specifications
12 SERIES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
11 SERIES EQUIPMENT AND TYPE APPROVAL SPECIFICATIONS 01 SERIES GENERAL 02 SERIES SERVICE ASPECTS 03 SERIES NETWORK ASPECTS

10 SERIES SERVICE INTERWORKING

04 SERIES MS-BSS INTERFACE AND PROTOCOLS

09 SERIES NETWORK INTERWORKING

05 SERIES PHYSICAL LAYER ON THE RADIO PATH. 06 SERIES SPEECH CODING SPECIFICATIONS

08 SERIES BSS TO MSC INTERFACES

07 SERIES TERMINAL ADAPTERS FOR MOBILE STATIONS

Increasing GSM Data Rates


UMTS
photo report video clip video report clip video report clip video report clip video report clip

E/GPRS

web

photo

ISDN PSTN

e-mail web

photo

e-mail

web

photo

GSM
0

e-mail

web

photo

10 sec

1 min

10 min

1 hour

Transmission Time

GPRS = General Packet Radio Service HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched Data EDGE = Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution UMTS = Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

Wireless Data Technology Options


2M
1M

throughput kbps

100 k

64 k

EDGE
HSCSD

UMTS

10 k

14.4 9.6

GPRS

1k

Time frame 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002


GPRS = General Packet Radio Service HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched Data EDGE = Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution UMTS = Universal Mobile Telecommunication System 10

Circuit-Switched or Packet-Switched
Circuit mode

Packet mode B

A
A

F
A

C
C

D A C

H F G
C D A C D A

G H

G H F

G H F
C

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What are the types in GSM Network?


GSM-900 (Channels 125 operating band 900Mhz carrier spacing 200khz spacing 45Mhz) GSM -1800 (Channels 374 spacing 95Mhz) GSM -1900(Used in USA)

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Multiple Access Technique


Multiple Access Achieved by dividing the available radio frequency spectrum, so that multiple users can be given access at the same time. FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access ( eg: GSM each Frequency channel is 200KHz) TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access ( eg: GSM each frequency channel is divided into 8 timeslots) CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access (eg: IS95- Each User data is coded with a unique code)
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Duplex Technique
Duplex - How the up link and Down link of a user is separated FDD - Frequency Division Duplex
(eg:In GSM the up link and down link of a user is separated by 45MHz )

TDD - Time Division Duplex


(the up link and down link of a user will be at the same frequency but at different Time )

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GSM System specifications


Frequency band Uplink Downlink Duplex Frequency Spacing Carrier separation Frequency Channels Time Slots /Frame(Full Rate) Voice Coder Bit Rate Modulation Air transmission rate Access method Speech Coder

890 - 915 MHz 935 - 960MHz 45MHz 200KHz 124 8 13Kbps GMSK 270.833333 Kbps FDMA/TDMA RPE-LTP-LPC
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Access Techniques
Uplink 890 MHz to 915 MHz Down Link 935 MHz to 960 MHz 25 MHz divided into 125 channels of 200 KHz bandwidth
UP 890.0 890.2 890.4 914.8 915.0

DOWN 935.0

935.2

935.4

959.8

960.0

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Access Techniques ...


Time Division Multiple Access Each carrier frequency subdivided in time domain into 8 time slots Each mobile transmits data in a frequency, in its particular time slot - Burst period = 0.577 milli secs. 8 time slots called a TDMA frame. Period is .577 * 8 = 4.616 milli secs
0.577 ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
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4.616 ms

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GSM in comparison with other Standards


GSM gives mobility without any loss in Audio quality Encryption techniques used gives high security in the air Interface and also use of SIM. Bit Interleaving for high efficiency in Transmission. Variable Power (Power budgeting- extend battery life) Minimum Interference. Features-CCS7 Signaling SMS (Short Message Services) Emergency Calls CELL Broadcast
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TOPICS
GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

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MS

GSM - Network Structure


Um BTS BSC Abis A MSC B C GMSC E Abis A MSC E PSTN X.25 VLR X.25 OMC Server 22 H VLR HLR

MS BTS

AuC

F
EIR

BSC Um BTS

GSM Network
SS AUC HLR MSC MS Mobile Station BTS Base transceiver System BSC Base Station Controller MSC Mobile Switching Center BSS BSC HLR Home Location Register VLR Visitor Location Register BTS EIR Equipment Identity Register AUC Authentication Center MS OMC Operation And Maintenance Center EIR OMC

Switching System

External PSTN & PDN N/W

VLR

Base Station System


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GSM Architecture
GSM
Air interface B S C
Abis interface

VMSC

SMSC

A interface

HLR
MSC VLR EIR

AUC PSTN

TRAU B S C

BTS BTS BTS

OMCS

BTS

BTS

BTS

Network and switching subsystem OMCR


A interface SS7 / speech X.25 SS7

Mobile Station Base Station System

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Fundamentals
960 MHz 959.8MHz

124 123 . 2 1

TS: Time slot

DOWNLINK
200KHz

935.2 Mhz 935 MHz

0 1

GSM utilizes two bands(TDMAMHz. 890-915 Downlink of 25 frame) = 8 TS MHz band is used for uplink while the 935960 MHz is used for downlink. The frequency bands are divided into 200 KHz wide channels called ARFCNs (Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Numbers) i.e. Data burst = 156.25 bit periods = 576.9s there are 125 ARFCNs out of which only 124 are used. Each ARFCN supports 8 users with each user transmitting / receiving on a particular time Delay 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 slot (TS).

2 3

4 5 6 7

915 MHz 914.8 MHz

124 123 . 2 1

45 MHz
UPLINK
200KHz

Uplink (TDMA frame)

890.2 MHz 890 MHz

The technology

Therefore 1 TDMA frame = 156.25 x 8 = 1250 bits and has a duration of 576.92s x 8 = 4.615 ms 25

Mobile Station (MS)


Hand portable unit
Contains Mobile Equipment(ME) and Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

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Mobile Equipment(ME)
Frequency and Time Synchronization Voice encoding and transmission Voice encryption/decryption functions Power measurements of adjacent cells Display of short messages International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI)

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SIM
Portable Smart Card with memory (ROM-6KB to 16KB-A3/A8 algorithm, RAM- 128KB TO 256KB, EEPROM- 3KB to 8KB ) Static Information International Mobile Subscriber Identity(IMSI) Personal Identification Number (PIN) Authentication Key (Ki) Dynamic Information Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity(TMSI) Location Area Identity (LAI) Phone memories, billing information Ability to store Short Messages received
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Base Transceiver Station (BTS)


Handles the radio interface to the mobile station. Consists of one or more radio terminals for transmission and reception Each Radio terminal represents an RF Channel TRX and MS communicates over Um interface Received data transcoding Voice encryption/decryption Signal processing functions of the radio interface Uplink Radio channel power measurements
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Base Station Controller (BSC)


Provides all the control functions and physical links between the MSC and BTS External Interfaces Abis interface towards the BTS A interface towards the MSC Monitors and controls several BTSs Management of channels on the radio interface Alarm Handling from the external interfaces Performs inter-cell Handover Switching from Abis link to the A link Interface to OMC for BSS Management

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Mobile Switching Center (MSC)


Performs call switching Interface of the cellular network to PSTN Routes calls between PLMN and PSTN Queries HLR when calls come from PSTN to mobile user Inter-BSC Handover Paging Billing
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Home Location Register (HLR)


Stores user data of all Subscribers related to the GMSC International Mobile Subscriber Identity(IMSI) Users telephone number (MS ISDN) Subscription information and services VLR address Reference to Authentication center for key (Ki) Referred when call comes from public land network

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Database that contains Subscriber parameters and location information for all mobile subscribers currently located in the geographical area controlled by that VLR Identity of Mobile Subscriber Copy of subscriber data from HLR Generates and allocates a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity(TMSI) Location Area Code Provides necessary data when mobile originates call

Visitor Location Register (VLR)

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Authentication Center (AuC)


Stores Subscriber authentication data called Ki, a copy of which is also stored in in the SIM card Generates security related parameters to authorize a subscriber (SRES-Signed RESponse) Generates unique data pattern called Cipher key (Kc) for user data encryption Provides triplets - RAND, SRES & Kc, to the HLR on request.

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EIR (Equipment Identity Register)


EIR is a database that contains a list of all valid mobile station equipment within the network, where each mobile station is identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity(IMEI). EIR has three databases.,
White list - For all known,good IMEIs Black list - For all bad or stolen handsets Grey list - For handsets/IMEIs that are on observation

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GSM Entities and Signaling Architecture

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GSM Protocols
CM MM RR LAPDm LAPD BTSM BSSAP DTAP MAP MTP SCCP TCAP ISUP - Connection Management - Mobility Management - Radio resource - LAPD for mobile - Link Access Procedure for D channel - BTS Management Part - BSS Application Part (BSC - MSC) - Direct Transfer Application Part (MS - MSC) - Mobile Application Part - Message Transfer part of SS7 - Signalling Connection Control Part of SS7 - Transaction Capabilities Application Part - ISDN User Part
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Functional Plane of GSM

MS

BTS

BSC

MSC/VLR

HLR

GMSC

CC

MM

RR

Trans MS BTS BSC MSC/ VLR HLR GMSC


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TOPICS
GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTIFIERS USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
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Subscriber Identity -MSISDN


The MSISDN is a GSM directory number which uniquely identifies a mobile subscription in the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Calls will be routed from the PSTN and other networks based on the Mobile Subscribers MSISDN number. MSISDN= CC + NDC + SN
CC= Country Code (91) NDC= National Destination Code(98370) SN= Subscriber Number (12345)

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International Mobile Subscriber Identity [IMSI]


Subscriber always identified within the GSM network by the IMSI This is used for all signaling in the PLMN stored in SIM and HLR/VLR The IMSI consists of three different parts
MCC = Mobile Country Code(3 Digits) MNC = Mobile Network Code(2 Digits) MSIN = Mobile Station Identification Number(Upto 10 digits)

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Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity [TMSI]


The TMSI is used for the subscribers confidentiality. It should be combined with the LAI to uniquely identify a MS. Since the TMSI has only local significance (that is, within the MSC/VLR area), the structure may be chosen by each administration. The TMSI should not consist of more than four octets.

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Mobile Station Roaming Number[MSRN]


HLR knows in what Service area the subscriber is located. In order to provide a temporary number to be used for routing, the HLR requests the current MSC/VLR to allocate a Mobile Station Roaming Number(MSRN) to the called subscriber and to return it. At reception of the MSRN, HLR sends it to the MSC, which now can route the call to the VLR where the called subscriber is currently registered.

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International Mobile Equipment Identity [IMEI]


The IMEI is used for equipment identification. An IMEI uniquely identifies a mobile station as a piece or assembly of equipment. IMEI = TAC + FAC + SNR + sp
TAC= Type Approval Code (6 digits),determined by GSM body FAC= Final Assembly Code (2 digits), identifies themanufacturer SNR= Serial Number (6 digits), uniquely identifying all equipment within each TAC and FAC sp = Spare for future use (1 digit)

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Location Area Identity


LAI identifies a location area which is a group of cells.. It is transmitted in the BCCH. When the MS moves into another LA (detected by monitoring LAI transmitted on the BCCH) it must perform a LU. LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC
MCC= Mobile Country Code(3 digits), identifies the country MNC= Mobile Network Code(1-2 digits), identifies the GSMPLMN LAC= Location Area Code, identifies a location area within a GSM PLMN network. The maximum length of LAC is 16 bits,enabling 65536 different location areas to be defined in 46 one GSM PLMN.

TOPICS
GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
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Channels : differentiating between Physical and Logical channels


Physical channels : The combination of an ARFCN and a time slot defines a physical channel. Logical channels : These are channels specified by GSM which are mapped on physical channels.

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Channel concept
Physical channel: One timeslot of a TDMA-frame on one carrier is referred to as a physical channel. There are 8 physical channels per carrier in GSM,channel 0-7(timeslot 0-7) Logical channel: A great variety of information must be transmitted between BTS and the MS,for e.g. user data and control signaling.Depending on the kind of information transmitted we refer to different logical channels.These logical channels are mapped on physical channel.

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Logical Channels on Air interface


LOGICAL CHANNELS

COMMON CHANNELS

DEDICATED CHANNELS

BROADCAST CHANNELS

COMMON CONTROL CHANNELS

DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNELS

TRAFFIC CHANNELS

FCCH

SCH

BCCH

SDCCH

SACCH

FACCH

PCH

RACH

AGCH

TCH/F

TCH/H

TCH/EFR 50

Frequency plan and importance of BCCH


B5 B6 B4 Sectored antennas

BPL frequency plan:


Broadcast frequencies : 15 Broadcast channels = 48-62 15 Hopping channels = 32-46 B8 B7

B3
B1 B2 B12 MS ( monitoring the broadcast radio B1 in idle mode )

B9 B10 B11 F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F10 F11

F50

..

..

..

F,S,B exist in time slot 0 of each frame

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Broadcast channels BCH


Broadcast Channel-BCH
Alloted one ARFCN & is ON all the time in every cell. Present in TS0 and other 7 TS used by TCH.

Frequency correction channel-FCCH


To make sure this is the BCCH carrier. Allow the MS to synchronize to the frequency. Carries a 142 bit zero sequence and repeats once in every 10 frames on the BCH.

Synchronization Channel-SCH
This is used by the MS to synchronize to the TDMA frame structure within the particular cell. Listening to the SCH the MS receives the TDMA frame number and also the BSIC ( in the coded part- 39 bits). 52 Repeats once in every 10 frames.

1.

The MS is monitoring the BCCH and has all the decoded information stored on the SIM ( including the LAC) As soon as the mobile is on a TCH it sends the signal strength indication on the corresponding SACCH The BSC monitors the signal strengths and on analysis sends a handoff request on FACCH. The handoff process is completed on the FACCH. After the completion of call, the MS starts monitoring the BCCH again. On finding the LAC (stored on SIM) and that decoded from the BCCH to be different , the MS requests a Location Update through SDCCH.

2.

3.

4.

Back

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Broadcast channels BCH ...


BCH
The last information the MS must receive in order to receive calls or make calls is some information concerning the cell. This is BCCH. This include the information of Max power allowed in the cell. List of channels in use in the cell. BCCH carriers for the neighboring cells,Location Area Identity etc. BCCH occupies 4 frames (normal bursts) on BCH and repeats once every Multiframe. This is transmitted Downlink point to multipoint.

Cell Broadcast Channel - CBCH


Used for the Transmission of generally accessible information like Short Message Services(SMS)
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What information does Broadcast Control channel (BCCH) contain?

Serves as a Beacon for the Cell Country Code (CC) and the Network Code (NC) Location Area Identity (LAI) List of neighboring cells which should be monitored by MS List of frequencies used in the cell

Cell identity

Back

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Common Control Channels CCCH


CCCH Shares TS-0 with BCH on a Multiframe.

Random access channel-RACH:


Used by Mobile Station for requesting for a channel. When the mobile realizes it is paged it answers by requesting a signaling channel (SDCCH) on RACH. RACH is also used by the MS if it wants to originate a call. Initially MS doesnt know the path delay (timing advance), hence uses a short burst (with a large guard period = 68.25 bits). MS sends normal burst only after getting the timing advance info on the SACCH. It is transmitted in Uplink point to point.
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Common Control Channels CCCH ..


Access Grant Channel-AGCH
On request for a signaling channel by MS the network assigns a signaling channel(SDCCH) through AGCH. AGCH is transmitted on the downlink point to point.

Paging Channel-PCH
The information on this channel is a paging message including the MSs identity(IMSI/TMSI).This is transmitted on Downlink, point-to-multipoint.

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Dedicated Control ChannelsDCCH


Stand alone dedicated control channel(SDCCH) AGCH assigns SDCCH as signaling channel on request by MS.The MS is informed about which frequency(ARFCN) & timeslot to use for traffic. Used for location update, subscriber authentication, ciphering information, equipment validation and assignment of TCH. This is used both sides, up and Downlink point-point.

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Dedicated Control ChannelsDCCH


Slow associated control channel-SACCH
Transmission of radio link signal measurement, power control etc. Average signal strengths(RXLev) and quality of service (RXQual) of the serving base station and of the neighboring cells is sent on SACCH (on uplink). Mobile receives information like what TX power it has to transmit and the timing advance. It is associated with TCH or SDCCH

Fast associated control channel-FACCH


Used for Hand over commands and during call setup and release. FACCH data is sent over TCH with stealing flag set
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Traffic Channels-TCH
TCH carries the voice data. Two blocks of 57 bits contain voice data in the normal burst. One TCH is allocated for every active call. Full rate traffic channel occupies one physical channel(one TS on a carrier) and carries voice data at 13kbps Two half rate (6.5kbps) TCHs can share one physical channel.
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TOPICS
GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
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GSM Radio Link


Speech Coding -Done at Transcoder of BSC and MS
The Linear Predictive Coder uses RPE-LTP(Regular Pulse Excitation- Long Term Prediction) Converts 64kbps voice to 13kbps(260 bits every 20ms)

Channel Coding - Done at BTS and MS


Uses Convolution Coding and CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) Converts 13 kbps to 22.8 kbps (456 bits per 20ms)

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GSM Radio Link


Bit Interleaving - Done at BTS and MS Encryption - Done at BTS and MS
EX OR data with cipher block, which is generated by applying A5 Algorithm to the Ciphering Key(Kc)

Multiplexing - Done at BTS Modulation - Done at BTS and MS


GMSK(Gaussian filtered Minimum Shift Keying) Phase change of +90 for 0 and -90 for 1

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Speech Coding
BP
BAND PASS 300 Hz 3.4 kHZ

A/D
Every 125 s value is sampled from analog signal and quantised by 13 bit word Data rate = 13/125*10 -6 = 104 kbps

SPEECH ENCODER

CHANNEL CODING

To modulator

Every 20ms 160 samples taken Data rate = 160 * 13/20ms = 104 kbps 3 crc bits

1A

1B

50

132

78
Four 0 bits for codec

50 3

132

Conv coding rate = 1/2 delay = 4

Linear Predictive Coding & Regular Pulse Excitation Analysis


1. Generates 160 filter coeff 2. These blocks sorted in 4 sequence 1,5,9,37 / 2,6,10----38/ 3,7,1139/8,12,1640 3. Selects the sequence with most energy
So data rate = 104/4 = 26 kbps

Long term prediction analysis


1. Previous sequences stored in memory 2. Find out the correlation between the present seq. And previous sequences 3. Select the highest correlation sequence 4. Find a value representing the difference between the two sequences. Reduces data rate = 26 kbps/2 = 13 kbps ie 260 bits in 20ms

378 coded bits


456 bits in 20 ms = 22.8 kbps 57 x 8 = 456

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1A = Filter Coeff block ampl, LTP params 1B = RPE pointers & pulses 2 = RPE pulse & filter params CHANNEL DECODING

LP

D/A

SPEECH DECODER

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Interleaving
Encoded speech blocks - Diagonal Interleaving
57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57

57
57

57
57

57
57

57
57

57 57

57 57

57 57

57 57

57 57

57 57

57 57

57 57

57
57

57
57

57
57

57
57

Even bits Odd bits

Bn-4 Bn-3 Bn-2 Bn-1

Bn Bn+1 Bn+2 Bn+3

Encoded control channel blocks - Rectangular Interleaving


57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57

57 57

57 57

57 57

57 57

57 57

57 57

57 57

57 57

57 57

57 57

57 57

57 57

Even bits Odd bits

Bn-4 Bn-3 Bn-2 Bn-1

Bn Bn+1 Bn+2 Bn+3

Tb 3

Coded Data 57

F Training Sequence F 1 26 1

Coded Data 57

Tb 3

Gp 8.25

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Burst
The information format transmitted during one timeslot in the TDMA frame is called a burst. Different Types of Bursts
Normal Burst Random Access Burst Frequency Correction Burst Synchronization Burst

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Normal Burst
156.25 bits 0.577 ms

T 3

Coded Data 57

S 1

T. Seq. 26

S 1

Coded Data 57

T 3

GP 8.25

Tail Bit(T) Coded Data Stealing Flag


Training Seq.

:Used as Guard Time :It is the Data part associated with the burst :This indicates whether the burst is carrying Signaling data (FACCH) or user info (TCH). :This is a fixed bit sequence known both to the BTS & the MS.This takes care of the signal deterioration.

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156.25 bits 0.577 ms T 3 Training Sequence 41 Random Access Burst 156.25 bits 0.577 ms T 3 Fixed Bit Sequence 142 Freq. Correc. Burst T 3 GP 8.25 Coded Data 36 T 3 GP 68.25

156.25 bits 0.577 ms


T 3 Coded Data 39 Training Sequence 64 Coded Data 39 T 3 GP 8.25

Synchronization Burst
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Transmission on the radio channels


A timeslot has a duration of .577 m seconds (148 Bits) 8 timeslots(8 x 0.577 = 4.62 ms) form a TDMA frame If a mobile is assigned one TS it transmits only in this time slot and stays idle for the other 7 with its transmitter off, called bursting The start on the uplink is delayed from downlink by 3 TS periods One TS = duration of 156.25 bits, and its physical contents is called a burst
Downlink 0
BTS > MS

Uplink
MS > BTS

0
Offset

7
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Timing Advance
MS1 0 near MS2 0 far

MS1 0 near MS2 0 far 1

At BTS 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7

At BTS 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7
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Frames Types On Um Interface


TDMA Frame
8 Time slots (Burst Period) Length is 4.62 ms(8 * 0.577ms)

26-TDMA Multiframe
26 TDMA Frames (24 TCH, SACCH, Idle) 120 ms (26 * 4.62ms)

51-TDMA Multiframe
26 TDMA Frames (FCCH, SCH, BCCH, SDCCH, CCCH) 235.6 ms (51 * 4.62ms)

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Frames Types On Um Interface


Super Frame
51* 26 TDMA Frames 6.12 S

Hyper Frame
2048 * 51* 26 TDMA Frames 3 Hours, 28 Minutes, 53 Secs and 760 ms

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TOPICS
GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
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Mobility Management
Mobility Management (MM) Location updating- normal,periodic, IMSI attach Paging Security Management
Preventing unauthorized users- authentication Maintaining Privacy of users- ciphering

Providing roaming facility MM functionality mainly handled by MS, HLR, MSC/VLR.


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Network Attachment
Cell Identification
MS scans complete GSM frequency band for highest power Tunes to highest powered frequency and looks for FCCH. Synchronizes in frequency domain Get training sequence from SCH which follows FCCH. Synchronizes in time domain. Accesses BCCH for network id, location area and frequencies of the neighboring cells. Stores a list of 30 BCCH channels

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Network Attachment..
PLMN Selection
Get the operator information from SIM.

Cell Selection
Selected cell should be a cell of the selected PLMN Signal strength should be above the threshold. Cell should not be barred

Location Update
Register with the network by means of location updation procedures.

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MS

BTS

MS Location Update (registration) BSC (G)MSC VLR HLR


Channel Request (RACH) Channel Assignment (AGCH)

Action

TMSI + old LAI

Location Update Request (SDCCH) Authentication Request (SDCCH) Authentication Response (SDCCH)

Comparison of Authentication param Accept LUP and allocTMSI (SDCCH)

Ack of LUP and TMSI (SDCCH)


Entry of new area and identity into VLR and HLR Channel Release (SDCCH) 77

Security - Authentication
MS
Ki RAND

A3
SRES
MS BTS AuC

RAND SRES SRES Auth Result

Authentication center provides RAND to Mobile AuC generates SRES using Ki of subscriber and RAND Mobile generates SRES using Ki and RAND Mobile transmits SRES to BTS BTS compares received SRES with one generated by AuC
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Security - Ciphering
MS
Ki RAND A8

Kc MS Kc Data

Um interface Network Kc Ciphered Data Data

A5

A5

Data sent on air interface ciphered for security A5 and A8 algorithms used to cipher data Ciphering Key is never transmitted on air
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TOPICS
GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
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Communication Management (CM)


Setup of calls between users on request Routing function i.e. Choice of transmission segments linking users Point to Point Short message services

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Mobile Originated Call


Request for Service Authentication Ciphering Equipment Validation Call Setup Handovers Call Release

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MS

Mobile Originated Call


BTS BSC VLR HLR

MS BTS
Authentication response (SDCCH)

AuC GMSC

EIR
ACM Authentication request (SDCCH)

MSC PSTN
Ring alert Speech path enabled Called Sub answers

Req for dedicated channel BSC Authentication response Allocates SDCCH using the AGCH (SDCCH) for signaling (RACH) BTS
SDCCH released TCH assigned Ring Sends callFACCH requestGive SDCCH tone over set-up including Call set-up forwarded Ring tone ceases over FACCH Release SDCCH Activate TCH dialled digits on SDCCH to BSC

Connect Assigns TCH Req Assn complete message Call set-up forwarded to MSC

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Mobile Terminated Call


Paging Authentication Ciphering Equipment Validation Call Setup Handovers Call Release

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Mobile Terminated Call


MS Paging Assignment CMD (=TCH) on SDCCH

BTSTMSI Paged on PCH BSC

HLR VLR Query for VLR info Reply (MSRN) EIR

* MS Allocate tunes Page RESP on SDCCH MS Ch. REQ SDCCH * Assgn overRACH CMP ( AGCH overTMSI + LAI) BTS * Phone rings

Connect traffic Ch.to trunk GMSC frees SDCCH Query VLR Page RES Page Assgn CMP for LAC and Assign. REQ Paging TMSI the area (+TMSI) Route to MSC Alerting Network MSC BSC

AuC

PSTN

BTS
Land to Mobile call (MSISDN)

Authentication and Ciphering procedure done as seen in Location Updation 85

TOPICS
GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
86

Radio Resource Management


Establish maintain and release stable connections between MS and MSC Manage Limited Radio and Terrestrial resources Handover process is the sole responsibility of the RR Layer Functions of RR layer are performed by MS and BSC and partly by MSC

87

Radio Resource Management


Power Control Hand over Control Discontinuous Transmission Frequency Hopping

88

Power Control

BTS commands MS at different distances to use different power levels so that the power arriving at the BTSs Rx is approximately the same for each TS - Reduce interference - Longer battery life
89

Handover
Means to continue a call even a mobile crosses the border of one cell to another Procedure which made the mobile station really roam Handover causes
RxLev (Signal strength , uplink or downlink) RxQual (BER on data) O & M intervention Timing Advance Traffic or Load balancing
90

Handover Types
Internal Handover (Intra-BSS) Within same base station - intra cell Between different base stations - inter cell External Handover (Inter-BSS) Within same MSC -intra MSC Between different MSCs - inter-MSC

91

Handover Types
MSC BSC GMSC

BSC

C-3
BSC MSC

C-4

C-1

C-2

BSC
92

Intra BSC handover


HO required Activate TCH(facch) with HoRef#

HO performed

BSC

Acknowledges and alloctes TCH (facch) if 1. Check for HO passed 2. Channel avail in new BTS

BTS 2

Periodic Measurement Reports (SACCH)

Periodic Measurement Reports

MS tunes into new frequency and TS and sends HO message to new BTS (facch) Receives new BTS data(FACCH)

HO cmd with HoRef#

Release TCH

Cell 2
Periodic Measurement Reports (SACCH)

BTS 1

Cell 1
93

Discontinuous Transmission
Discontinuous Transmission(DTX) allows the radio transmitter to be switched off most of the time during speech pauses. A Silence Indicator Block is transmitted at 500bps, which generates a comfort noise Down Link interference is decreased. Up link battery is saved

94

Frequency Hopping
Frequency Hopping permits the dynamic switching of radio links from one carrier frequency to another. Base Band Hopping At the BTS each the timeslot is shifted to another transceiver, which is transmitting at the hop frequency. User will be connected to different Transceivers depending on hop sequence. Synthesis Hopping At the BTS transceiver changes the frequencies used. The user will be connected to only one transceiver. Decreases the probability of interference Suppresses the effect of Rayleigh fading

95

Add-on to GSM network : rate for GSM Evolution Enhanced Data PCU; Packet EDGE is an enhancement of GPRS and CSD technologies. Segmentation/re-assembly and scheduling Radio channel accessthe current GSM Standards - same TDMA frame structure, Universal Mobile Telecommunication technology Based on control and management TransmissionService Architecture retransmission.- providing the us Innovative error detection and : VHE Concept same bandwidth (200 kHz). Power control and feelmodulation instead services independent of the same look 8-PSK of its personalized of GMSK. Uses Surf the Internet while on the move SGSN: GPRSRequires good propagation conditions. network and terminal. mobility High Speed Circuit Switched Data Encryption Allows upto:48 kbps (EGPRS) and upto 28.8 kbps (ECSD) on every Global Convergence Fixed/Mobile, Telecom/Datacom, public/private User Data Rate:14.5kbps W@P Gateway : Charging Multimedia driven market. Mobile radio channel Adaptation SMS Use multiple timeslots (max=8), GGSN : Data:EDGE helps GSM-Only operators to compete with UMTS. of the information to the mobile Interface -numeric Internet MHz per carrier), -max. 2Mbps the Wideband160 torate PDN,characters bearers - 2GHz Rate : 9.6kbps band ( 5 hence = 115.2kbps. Compression of the data User Data max UMTS Needs a over the air interface duplexor in MS for Buffering of the information One time slot Max user data rate : 21.4 kbps simultaneous Tx and Rx Dynamic rate adaptation to suit the radio conditions at EDGE that time ( 9.05 kbps, 13.4 kbps, 15.6 kbps 21.4 kbps)

Data Application

Wireless Data

GPRS

HSCSD SIM Toolkit GSM DATA F o n e WAP


Circuit Switched technology Packet Switched technology Technology for Applications

W @ P

Mobile Network
W@P Gateway

Internet 99 2000

W@P Service

Time
96

98

2001

References
Wireless and Personal Communication Systems. Vijay.K.Garg and Wilkes Overview of the GSM System and Protocol Architecture, IEEE Comm. Magazine, Moe Rahnema. The GSM System for Mobile CommunicationsMichel Mouly & Marie-Bernadette Pautet Overview of the GSM Comm- John Scourias.

97

98

Location Updates
Location Updates can be classified into two:
Periodic Location Updates:
This occurs as per the timer set by the network operator. If the MS does not perform this update the MSC marks the MS as Detached on the VLR.

Location Update on a handover:


This occurs if during a handover the MS is moved into a new Location Area Code (LAC).
99