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Group Decision Making Certain decision are complex & only few individuals have al the knowledge &

skills necessary to make the best decision. Features of GD making: Grps are more vigilant Grps generate more ideas Develop more alternative solutions Better evaluation

Conflict in Group:The differentiation that happens in the group leads to conflict. Types of conflict situations:1) Conflict within the individual 2) Interpersonal conflict 3) Conflict between individual & group 4) Inter-group conflict 5) Inter-organizational conflict


ORGANIZATION CHANGE & DEVELOPMENT Change- Alteration of status quo Why Change? To keep the level of given stability To be able to survive in the new environment To bring in creativity & innovation


Forces of change

External Force: They arise from general environment & task environment. General eviron Economic, political, legal, socio-cultural & technological. Task environ Effects the health of the organization Consists of customer, competitors, suppliers,labour,stockholders

Internal Force: It can be due to the change induced by the management. eg: policy change It can come from shareholders, Board of Directors or employees.




1) UNFREEZING Helps to make individuals or organization aware & prepare them for change. Change should not be all of the sudden. Unfreezing is a process of breaking down the old attitudes & behavior, customs & traditions so that they start with a clean slate. Methods- by making announcements, hold meetings, mails, group conferences.

2) CHANGING/MOVING TO NEW CONDITION Unfreezing makes the people to be adjusted with the change. 3 methods of reassigning new patterns:a) Compliance b) Identification c) Internalization

3) REFREEZING: Normal behavior becomes a normal way It become permanent in nature. The 3 steps are cyclical.

EXAMPLE BRITISH AIRWAYS Change Methodology management plan of BA 1. Reduce work force ( Unfreezing) The chairman gave the company the reasons for the change in order to prepare them for the upcoming change 2.Restructuring and privatization of the company (Changing) 3.Effective running( Refreezing)

TYPES OF CHANGE 1. Strategic Change:Change in the mission of the organization. 2. Structural Change:Change made in organization structure/structural shift happens. 3. Process- Oriented/Technological Change Change in information processing, automation 4. People oriented change Made towards performance improvement, group cohesion, dedication & loyalty.


1) Develop new goals & objectives

2)Select an agent for change

3) Diagnose the problem

4)Select Methodology 5)Develop a plan 6) Strategy for implementation of the plan

7)Implementation of the plan

8) Receive & evaluate feedback

The Change Agents The factors that are responsible for bringing about the change in the individual behavior patterns. Change agents can be initiators or serve as a catalysts. Types of change agents are:i) Outside pressures ii) Internal organizational Development iii) Individual Change iv) Changes from the central management

Characteristics of successful change Agent:- Empathy - Openness - Reward - Energy - Synergy Resistance to change: - Insecurity - Lack of communication - Rapidity & extend of change - The group resistance - Emotion - Loss of power & control

How to manage resistance to change? Participation & Involvement Communication & Education Leadership Timing for change


OD was coined by Richard Backhard in 1950s.