Characteristics of Mazama Ash Soils

50 40 depths (cm) 30 20 10 0 S oil D epth D uff D epth R hiz om e D epth M ois ture (% ) S oil Tem p C 8.50 1.98 6.21 9.23 44.89

S o il C h a ra c te ris tic s o f M a z a m a A s h S o ils in th e R e d Zo n e o f th e U p p e r C h e w a u c a n W a te rs h e d , 2 0 0 8

The scenario occurring during the destruction of soil structure by fire is:
• • • • Soil structure collapses Reduces soil porosity Soil surface compacted by raindrops Soil pores become partially or totally sealed • Impenetrable soil surface reduces infiltration rates, producing rapid runoff and hill slope erosion

Stand Density
• Predominantly Lodgepole Pine • Western Mountain Pine Beetles Effect
– Basal area reduced from 300 to around 100 – Living trees reduced from 400 to 120, leaving around 280 standing snags per acre

Soil Heating Process

Research Procedure

Water Holding Capacity Results
C o m p a ris o n o f W a te r H o ld in g C a p a c ity o f M a z a m a A s h S B u rn e d fo r 5 m in u te s a t V a rio u s T e m p e ra tu re s
70.00 60.00 water holding capacity (%) 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 2 0 C Te s t in g 1 0 0 C Te s t in g 2 0 0 C Te s t in g 4 0 0 C Te s t in g 57.63 58.02 51.39

46.01

Percolation Rate Results

C o m p a ris o n o f P e rc o la tio n R a te s in M a z a m a A s h S o ils B u fo r 5 m in u te s a t In c re a s in g T e m p e ra tu re s
4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 3 .67 3.03

percolation ratio (g/s)

0.73

0 .72

2 0 C Te s t in g

1 0 0 C Te s t in g

2 0 0 C Te s t in g

4 0 0 C Te s t in g

Turbidity Results

100 C Turbidity: 200 Cloudy

200 C Turbidity: 50 Colored

400 C Turbidity: 10 Clear

Samples added to 500ml of water, agitated for 5 minutes and sat for 1 minute before photographs were taken.

Bacteria Results
C o m p a ris o n o f B a c te ria l C o u n ts a t V a rio u s D e p th s in M a z a m a As h S o ils F o llo w in g B u rn in g fo r 5 m in u te s a t V a rio u s T e m p e ra tu re s , 2 0 0 8
30000 mean bacterial count 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 20 C
8 0 0 2400 0 00 0 240 2400 24000 0 2400 24000 1800 0 24000 16000

S urfac e 2.5c m 5c m

100 C

200 C

400 C

Effects of Heat on Soil Structure

20 C

100 C

200 C

600 C

800 C

Conclusion
• Soil can be significantly changes at temperatures of 200 C
– Hydrocarbons in pine needles bind soil particles together, increasing plasticity of soils.
• Increased erosion, decreased nutrients and water storage

• Water repellent layers become a major soil feature at 400 C • Soil Biota is killed within the first inch