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After obtaining the background knowledge, the analyst begins to collect data on existing system’s outputs, inputs and costs. It includes • a review of literature & procedures and forms • on-site observations • interviews • questionnaires
Review of Literature, procedures and forms o Search of literature through professional references o textbooks o company studies o government publications Drawback of search is time, publications may be expensive n have outdated information. Procedure manuals – format and functions, objectives. Drawback – manuals don’t exist or out-of-date. Forms – capturing, providing information. all information? Readable ? Easy to follow? helpful for better decisions ?
On- Site Observation • Process of recognizing and noting people, objects, occurrences to obtain information. • Analyst follows the set of rules. More likely to listen with a sympathetic and genuine interest. Emphasis is not to give advise or argue. • Classification :1. Natural – occurs at employees place of work Contrived – set up in a place like laboratory 2. Obtrusive -- when the respondent knows he or she is being observed.
without the knowledge of the respondent. obtrusive.the observer looks for & records a specific action. .Unobtrusive -. Unstructured -. natural. Structured -.uses mechanical devices such as cameras & videotapes to capture information.when the analyst actually observes the system at work. 4.contrived way …. Indirect -. Direct -.places the observer in a situation to observe whatever might be pertinent at the time. 3. unstructured are frequently used to get an overview of the system. direct.
• the work being observed may not involve the level of difficulties or volumes normally experienced.Advantages of onsite-observation •highly reliable •It allows the analyst to see. • people may let you see what they want you to see. • some system task may occur at odd times causing a scheduling inconvenience to the analyst. how the system works. . • The system would have observed different task performed or procedures executed. •Inexpensive •This allows the system analyst to do work measurement Disadvantages of onsite-observation • workers perform indifferently when being watched.
Questionnaires • special-purpose document that allows the analyst to collect information & opinions from the respondents. Fixed-format: contains question that requires selection of predefined responses. • Types of questionnaires There are two forms Free-format: a question is asked & the respondent records the answer in the space provided after the question. .
(2) rating-question: the respondent is a given a statement & asked to use supplied responses to state one’s opinion therefore to eliminate a built-in bias there should be an equal number of positive & negative ratings. (3) ranking-questions: the respondents are given a list of answers that are to be answered based on choice or preferences.A fixed format consist of :(1) multiple.choice question: several questions are listed & one or more can be chosen. .
from the #1 most important item through the #10 least important item"). where 1 is ‘not at all important' and 10 is ‘very important'") while a ranking question asks you to compare different items directly to one another (e. .g. "Please rank each of the following items in order of importance. Both types of questions have their strengths and weaknesses.. "Please rate each of the following items on a scale of 1-10..g.The difference between rating and ranking is : a rating question asks you to compare different items using a common scale (e.
People can complete it & return it at their convenience. •Responses are easy to tabulate. .Advantages of questionnaires:•Inexpensive means for gathering information from a large number of individuals •Allows individual to maintain anonymity. •Questionnaires can be answered quickly as possible.
Disadvantage OF QUESTIONNAIRES:• No guarantee that an individual will answer or expand on all the questions. • Good questionnaires are difficult to prepare. • Inflexible • There is no immediate opportunity to clarify a vague or incomplete answer to any question. It’s not possible for the system analyst to observe & analyze the respondent’s body language .
Developing a good questionnaire: 1. consider using smaller. determine whether free or fixed format question will produce better answers 3. based on needed facts & opinions. write the question. determine what facts and information has to be collected and from whom. Make sure the question don’t offer personal bias opinions . Examine the questions for error or possible misinterpretation. if the number of people is large. randomly selected group respondents 2.
Duplicate the questions & distribute . if respondents had a problem or questions were not useful edit the questions.4. Test the question on sample of respondents. 5.
Interview • It is a fact-finding technique whereby the system analyst collects information from individuals through face-to-face interaction. This type of interview frequently goes off track & the analyst must be prepared to redirect the interview back to the main goal or subject . the interviewer counts on the interviewee to provide framework & direct conversation. • Types of interview (1) Unstructured interview: are conducted with general objective in mind. for this reason an unstructured is avoided. .
Open-ended questions: This allows the interviewee to answer in an appropriate way. Close-ended questions This allows the interviewee to answer in a direct way or short answer. • two types of questions:-.(2) Structured interview: the interviewer has a specific question to ask the interviewee. .
•Interviewer can analyze the interviewee’s body language and analyze their verbal & non-verbal communication. •Flexible i. the analyst can reframe their question.Advantages of interview:•Interviews help the analyst to motivate the interviewee to respond freely & openly to questions. •This allows the system analyst to probe for more feedback from the interviewee.e. .
phrase questions clearly & succinctly 4. set the stage for the interview 2. Guide to successful interview: 1. put the interviewee at ease 3. Evaluate the outcome of the interviews.Disadvantage of interview:•Time-consuming •Expensive •This is highly dependent on system analyst’s humanrelations skills. . establish rapport. be a good listener. avoid argument 5.
The direction of the interviews is controlled by discouraging distracting conversation. many staff members are reluctant to participate. . Even though the procedure is authorized by management in advance. The job of the analyst is that of a reporter rather than that of a debater. data collection is an imposition on user staff time and an intrusion into their privacy.Stage settings: this is an “ice breaking” relaxed. Establishing rapport: in one respect. informal phase when the analyst opens the interview by focusing on (a) the purpose of the interview (b) Why the subject was selected c) the confidential nature of the interview.
therefore • do not deliberately mislead the staff about the purpose of the study. • Avoid showing off your knowledge or sharing information received from other sources. • Assure the interviewees confidentially that no information they offer will be released to unauthorized personnel. regardless of their credentials. Therefore establishing a rapport with the user is important. • Respect the time schedules do not make an extended social event out of the meeting.There is seldom a direct advantage in supplying information to outsiders. There is strong perception that this might harm them. .
• Do not interrupt the interviewee. such as advice or feedback. Obtaining & recording the response:interviewer must be prepared to coax respondent to elicit further information when necessary. it is important to ask question exactly the way they have been worded. .• Do not promise anything you cannot or you should not deliver. Asking the questions:- Except in unstructured interview.
. JAD involves Development teams. collecting. finalizing and managing requirements to build a S/W project. Management and Customer groups working together . Analysts.JAD ( Joint Application Development ) It is a method of discussing.
Participants 1. • Final decision maker on all points. . Sponsor • The sponsor is the owner of the s/w project who financially supports its implementation • Support project implementation by providing his views of questions facing the JAD teams. Support financially and provide required facilities for the conduct of the JAD sessions.
2. ensure goals are met. End users • Chosen by the project sponsor to contribute to understanding of business problems and requirements in the new project . encourages active participation. establish ground rules for the sessions • Should be a skillful and respected leader. ensures discussions are oriented towards achieving goals. Facilitator • Plans. • Leads discussions. resolves conflicts. 3. executes and manages the JAD sessions.
open questions.4. action items for various participants identified in a JAD sessions . decisions. Manager • Project manager for the implementation • Review and approve objectives of the session and help establish priorities • Identify any training requirements 5. Scribes • Document activities.
Human Resources etc…) • System specialists are analysts who are working to perform requirements analysis on the project or other analysis related roles in the software development activity . Banking.• Works with the facilitator in getting document reviewed and finalized 6. Domain and Information System specialists • Domain experts have specialized knowledge on the functional area where the project is implemented (Eg – Insurance.
Tasks in JAD Session Before start of the sessions •Set clear objectives and timelines for sessions •Identify stakeholders and participants •Collect samples. existing documents and other items that are required during the sessions. At the start of the session • Reconciles each users views of the projects and its goals • Define meeting rules and interaction policies during the session .
During the session • Document discussion points relating to requirements and Build formal requirements documents • Get requirement documents reviewed by meeting participants and sponsor • Rework on requirement documents based on feedback (from previous steps) and get approval Concluding portion of the session • Prepare Software Requirement Specification document • Conclude meeting with agreement on requirements and next steps to move forward in implementing the project .
JAD Session – Modalities for conduct •Points to be kept in mind regarding conduct of the session Avoid use of technical jargon in the sessions and documentation prepared during the sessions Avoid any conflicts and continued disagreements Allow sufficient breaks to get the most out of the sessions Encourage group consensus and participate actively No user to dominate the session and views are put forth by all participants All participants to abide by session rules and allow JAD facilitator to moderate .
rework time during testing and build cost •Helps catch errors early •Helps key participants to establish good relations early on in the project which will of positive help through the rest of the project .Advantages •Reduce system development time by ensuring all key players work together to agree on requirements •Improved quality of requirements and productivity •Reduced system cost.
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