BMM4924 FINAL YEAR PROJECT 2 “EFFECTS OF ALIGNMENT OF REINFORCEMENT MATERIAL TO THE PROPERTIES OF POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE(PMC)”

AEYZARQ MUHAMMAD HADZREEL BIN MOHD RAZALI ME08049 SUPERVISOR: DR. SITI RABIATULL AISHA BINTI IDRIS
FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

PRESENTATION OUTLINE
• 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Objectives 1.2 Scopes of Works • 2.0 Literature Review • 3.0 Methodology • 4.0 Result and discussion • 5.0 Conclusion • 6.0recomendation • 7.0 References

1. Mallick.2007 .0 INTRODUCTION • • Composite materials are the well known material that has been used in manufacturing industry such as aircraft engineering and marine engineering. Composite material is one which is composed of at least two elements working together to produce material properties that are different to the properties of those elements on their own.K. Application of PMC in AIRBUS A380 fabrication Source : P.

• To distinguish the effect of various thickness on mechanical and physical properties of PMC.1 OBJECTIVES • To study the effect of different alignment of reinforced material to the properties of Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC). • To evaluate the water resistance using different alignment towards seawater .1.

ii.150°) Specimen fabrication Mechanical testing Water absorption : : : Hand lay-up process i. 120°. ii. 60° and 90°. 30°. E-glass fiber woven roving 5 layer and 7 layer thickness Bidirectional (0° and 90 °) Multidirectional ( 0°. Tensile testing (ASTM D3039-M) Water absorption test (ASTM D570) seawater . ii. i.1.2 Scopes Of Works Matrix : Unsaturated Polyester resin (Thermoset) Reinforcement Reinforcement alignment : : i.

But in modern materials engineering. David. 2000)  Composite material is a materials system composed of a suitably arranged mixture or combination of two or more substituent with an interface separating them that differ in form and chemical composition and are insoluble in each other. Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC).(R. the term usually refers to a “matrix” material that is reinforced with reinforced material.2. and Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC). composite material can be divided into three types which are Metal Matrix Composite (MMC). . since all materials are composed of dissimilar subunits if examined at close enough detail.2005)  It consists of two major components which is matrix that surround the fiber and reinforced that embedded in the composite.0 PROJECT BACKGROUND : COMPOSITE  The term “composite” could mean almost anything if taken at face value.  Generally. (Smith.

L. 2006 . Kakani.Classifications Of Composite Material (Reinforce) Source : S.

Illustration of composite material Matrix material ( primary phase that usually more ductile and less hard that hold the reinforce and shares a load with it ) Reinforcement Material (a constituent material with relatively high stiffness or very high strength material embedded in the matrix composition ) .

MPa 965 1109 Tensile properties of some composite material .35 Modulus. g/cm3 1.Advantages & Disadvantages Of Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) Advantages Light weight comparing to Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) and Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) High strength-to-weight ratio comparing to Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) and Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Lower fabrication cost comparing to Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) and Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Disadvantages Low thermal resistance comparing to Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) and Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) High coefficient of thermal expansion comparing to Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) and Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Material S-glass/epoxy Boron fiber/ Aluminum Density.3 220 Tensile Strength. GPa 39.85 2.

Application of Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) • Glass fiber-reinforced polyesters have been used in different types of boat (e. • Today. dinghies.g. among 90% of all recreational boats are constructed of either glass fiber-reinforced polyester or glass fiber-reinforced vinyl ester. • Among the applications are hulls.. decks and various interior components. life boats and yacht. . sail boats fishing boats.

3.0 Methodology Flowchart 30 cm 30cm Cut the fiberglass to 30cm X 30cm Mix the catalyst with the polyester Cover the second laminar onto the first laminar Roll the polyester uniformly onto the laminar Pour the polyester onto the fiberglass laminar Tensile test ASTM D3039M Testing Water absorption test ASTM D570 .

Fiberglass Classification Of Orientation Fiberglass 30° 60° Bidirectional orientation Multidirectional orientation 5 layer multidirectional orientation .

5cm Specimen being cut Specimen ready for tensile test Specimen Instron Universal Testing Machine Model 3369 .Specimen being prepared for tensile test 25 cm 2.

Specimen Being Prepared For Water Absorption Test 2.5cm 7.5cm Specimen dimension Specimens being heated in furnace for 8 hours at 50°C Specimen’s weight being measured using electronic balance Specimen’s weight being measured again Specimens being immerse in the seawater for 24 hours .

4.0 Result and discussion .

•The highest tensile strength for 5 layer bidirectional is around 195 MPa while the highest tensile strength for 5 layer multidirectional is 160 MPa.02686 0.02333 0.200 195 190 185 180 175 170 165 160 155 150 145 140 0.02569 Tensile strength for 5 layer laminates Tensile stress [Mpa] 5 layer multidirectional 5 layer bidirectional 0. • We can conclude that bidirectional alignment will give a better mechanical properties such as strength than the multidirectional alignment. we can see that 5 layer bidirectional orientation have higher ultimate tensile strength than the 5 layer multidirectional orientation.02392 Tensile strain [mm/mm] •From the graph above. .02314 0.

we can see that 7 layer bidirectional orientation has a greater ultimate tensile strength comparing with to the 7 layer multi directional.02294 0. •We can conclude that bidirectional alignment will give a better mechanical properties such as strength than the multidirectional alignment.03216 0. . •The highest tensile strength for 7 layer bidirectional orientation is 243 MPa while the highest tensile strength for 7 layer multidirectional orientation is 219 MPa.Tensile Strength for 7 layer laminates 260 Tensile strength [MPa] 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 0.03118 0.02078 0.0349 7 layer multidirectional 7 layer bidirectional Tensile strain [mm/mm] • From the above graph.

• It is because the properties such as stress and strain is greater for bidirectional alignment. • The graphs above proved that bidirectional alignment will make the Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) more stiffness than the multidirectional alignment .Young’s Modulus For Each Type Of Alignment And Thickness 9000 8000 7000 Young Modulus (MPa) Young Modulus (MPa) 6000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 3000 2000 1000 0 5 layer multidirectional 5 layer bidirectional 7 layer multidirectional Types of alignment Types of alignment 7 layer bidirectional • From the two graphs above. we can observe that Young’s Modulus is greater for bidirectional alignment.

.2 0.6 0.2 0.7 water absorption (%) 0. •Seawater degradation can cause swelling and plasticisation of the polyester matrix and debonding at the fiber/matrix interface that may reduce the mechanical properties.9 0.4 0.1 0 0 0.3 0.4 7 layer multidirectional 7 layer bidirectional 5 layer multidirectional 5 layer bidirectional Types of alignment Types of alignment • From the 2 graphs above.5 0. it can be observed that multidirectional alignment will absorbed more quantity of water comparing to bidirectional alignment.6 0.8 water absorption (%) 0.8 1 0.Water Absorption Test (ASTM D570) 1.2 0.

• The multidirectional orientation absorbed more quantity of water than the bidirectional orientation. • Tensile test and water absorption test proved that mechanical properties and physical properties of Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) is highly depended on the thickness of the laminates. .0 Conclusion • Variety of angle of orientation will reduce the mechanical properties of Polymer Matrix Composite(PMC).5.

.6.0 Recommendation • • • The thickness of Polymer Matrix Composite(PMC) should be varied in order to find the optimum thickness for the PMC The study should be conducted with different type of reinforced material in order to optimized the effect of alignment of reinforced material Orientation of angle should be varied in order to find the optimum orientation of laminates which could enables to increase its mechanical properties.

vii... NaCl.H. No..David. MATERIAL SCIENCE.. 9.. R. Vol.i. Patel et al. G. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFECTS ON CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OF FRP COMPOSITES WHEN EXPOSED TO DISTILLED WATER... Shen et al. INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITE MATERIALS. Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering National Institute of Technology. 1997 K. 2006 R. Foundations of Materials Science 4th edition. ii. 2007 C. S. pp. Moisture Absorption and Desorption of Composite Materials. 2008 R.2. 2000 P. v. Fiber-Reinforced Composites Materials. INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITE MATERIALS..K. Characterization of In-Plane Mechanical Properties of Laminated Hybrid Composites. viii.. 2005 David. iv. McGraw Hill...WATER SOLUTION AND SEA WATER SEPARATELY..105-114. Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Michigan. W. Academic Press. LLC. Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering. Smith... F. NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHERS. ix. Manufacturing. vi.L. Satish et al.0 References . and Design.. 2010 D. San Diego. Department of Materials Science and Engineering. AN INTRODUCTION TO THERMOSETS.. 1975 7. 2000 Kakani. Bruce. Department of Materials Science and Engineering. Taylor & Francis Group. Mallick.. iii.K.

. Q&A Session .The end.

resulting in off axis pulling of fibers and increased stress concentration causing the earlier failure of laminates. we can conclude that bidirectional alignment will give a better mechanical properties such as strength than the multidirectional alignment.  this is because the external tensile load is equally distributed on all the fibers and transmitted along the axis of the fibers. fiber axes is non-parallel to load axis. .Discussion  From the experiment.  Whereas in case of other fiber orientations.

improved mechanical properties. the primary driving force for using composite materials is a combination of features such as reduced weight. At first. the uses that have been found for these materials have broadened to include many kinds of structural application . their special properties led aligned-fiber composite materials to be considered primarily for specialty applications.PROBLEM STATEMENT  Numerous applications have been proposed and demonstrated for producing align-fiber composite. However. and resistance to chemical attack. Usually. Several processes have been patented to produce align-fiber composite.

variety of angle of orientation will reduce the mechanical properties of the Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) . •The lowest Young Modulus value is 5 layer multidirectional.Young Modulus for each type of thickness and orientation Young Modulus 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 5 layer multi directional 5 layer bidirectional 7 layer multi directional 7 layer bidirectional • From the bar chart above. the highest Young Modulus value is the 7 layer bidirectional followed by 5 layer bidirectional. •As a conclusion.

6 0.2 0 7 layer multidirectional 7 layer bidirectional 5 layer multidirectional 5 layer bidirectional • From the chart above.8 0.Water Absorption For Each Types Of Thickness And Orientation In Term Of Percentage 1. it can be observed that the highest water absorption percentage is 7 layer multidirectional laminate followed by 7 layer bidirectional laminates and the lowest is 5 layer .4 0.2 1 Water aborbtion (%) 0.

the greater is the strength. called the reinforcing phase. or tough. The reinforcing material and the matrix material can be metal. For example: polymer/ceramic composites have a greater modulus than the polymer component. In some cases. Examples of some current application of composites include the diesel piston.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • A composite is combination of two materials in which one of the materials. and is embedded in the other materials called the matrix phase. reinforcing materials are strong with low densities while the matrix is usually a ductile. but aren't as brittle as ceramics. . such as carbon or aramid (Kevlar29 and Kevlar49). glass fibers are combined with other fibers. The following are some of the reasons why composites are selected for certain applications: High strength to weight ratio (low density high tensile strength) High creep resistance High tensile strength at elevated temperatures High toughness Typically. brakeshoes and pads. If the composite is designed and fabricated correctly. material. it combines the strength of the reinforcement with the toughness of the matrix to achieve a combination of desirable properties not available in any single conventional material. Composites are used because overall properties of the composites are superior to those of the individual components. is in the form of fibers. or polymer. to create a "hybrid" composite that combines the properties of more than one reinforcing material. The downside is that such composites are often more expensive than conventional materials. Typically. the higher is the reinforcement content. or particles. arrangement and type of fiber (or particle) reinforcement in the resin. tires and the Beech craft aircraft in which 100% of the structural 16 components are composites. ceramic. sheets. The strength of the composite depends primarily on the amount.

These resins are tough. .Thermoplastic Resins: The different types of resins mentioned above for thermoplastic resins are more prevalent in the aerospace industry. less brittle and are used mostly with discontinuous fibers. and are also better suited to hightemperature applications up to the decomposition temperature. they are more brittle. However. They have higher viscosity than thermosetting resins and they may be crystalline in nature. Many thermosetting polymers are difficult to recycle. Thermoset materials are generally stronger than thermoplastic materials due to this three dimensional network of bonds (cross-linking).