Nonverbal Communication

Student’s Objectives
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To learn the importance of nonverbal (wordless) messages To understand and apply the concepts of immediacy (tendency to approach the things we like and avoid the things we dislike), power (tendency to equate size, dominance, strength, and high status with power), and responsiveness (adaptive actions such as anger, joy, and surprise in response to the environment) To understand and apply the meanings carried by nine nonverbal elements:  face,  voice,  movement,  touch,  appearance,  space,  time,  silence, and  environment

Nonverbal Communication Comparison of Verbal and Non Verbal Communication Message Impact 7 percent Type of Communication Words 38 percent 55 percent Tone of voice and inflection Facial expressions. body position. gestures .

and fear. a person who strides or struts exhibits more power than one who takes small steps or shuffles. For example. dominance. Nonverbal receiving includes reception of wordless messages through all five senses.   Nonverbal messages deal primarily with emotions and attitudes. dislike. positive evaluation. . strength. One who slouches or bows shows much less power than one who stands fully erect. whereas avoidance and non-immediacy indicate lack of preference. and high status. and liking. Power It relates to size. Nonverbal communication occur in only three primary dimensions: Immediacy  The concept of immediacy springs from the tendency to approach the things we like and avoid the things we dislike.  Approach and immediacy indicate preference.

boldness. pity.Responsiveness  Response to the environment appears through anger. happiness. anxiety. . joy. or benevolence. petulance. quietude. fear. sadness. surprise.

. Pounding the table. a person's eyes can often convey a far more vivid message than words and often do Complementing: they may add to or complement a verbal message.Roles of Nonverbal Communication       Nonverbal communication cues can play five roles: Repetition: they can repeat the message the person is making verbally Contradiction: they can contradict a message the individual is trying to convey Substitution: they can substitute for a verbal message. for example. A boss who pats a person on the back in addition to giving praise can increase the impact of the message Accenting: they may accent or underline a verbal message. can underline a message. For example.

Nonverbal Components of Communication          The human body (physical characteristics) Kinesics (the language of body position and movement) Oculesics (eye contact and use) Paralanguage (voice qualities and characteristics) Silence Colour Proxemics (the way we use space to communicate) Haptics (touch) Chronemics (time in both its cultural and physiological dimensions) .

 vocal segregates. paralanguage deals with how it is said.Three Major Categories of Nonverbal Communication 1.  vocal differentiators.How you say it  Language deals with what is said. and  vocal qualities . Paralanguage--. For example:  I would like to help you  I would like to help you  I would like to help you  I would like to help you  Paralanguage includes four major categories:  voice qualifiers.

The rate of speech also seems to change with emotions or personality types. or impatience. pleasantness. cheerfulness. dynamism. tension. intimacy. surprise. fear.Vocal qualifiers   Variations in pitch. joy. A low pitch may also show affection. anxiety. sadness. rate. anger. A high pitch may indicate nervousness. or empathy. and volume of the voice create vocal qualifiers. boredom. .

” “um.Vocal segregates  Sounds unnatural silences.” “ah.” “uh-huh. .” “ok.2.” Such fillers often indicate stress and create a negative impact on the receiver. and meaningless words used only to fill gaps between meaningful words act as vocal segregates.” and “well. Examples include “uh.

Most differentiators lead to negative meaning within receivers. think of your reaction when you hear these differentiators: Yawning Snoring Sharp exhaling/inhaling Laughing Yelling Spitting Crying Clearing Throat Hissing Belching Whining Moaning Giggling Coughing Groaning Whispering Slurping sniffing Sighing Gurgling Hiccoughing .3. For example. Vocal differentiators         Specialized sounds made with the voice create nonverbal symbols called vocal differentiators.

Regularity often expresses confidence. .it describes the distinctness with which one pronounces or articulate words. Rhythm---it arises from the regularity or irregularity of the vocal pattern. It ranges from the fully amplified tones to the thin or blaring tones.Irregularity may express anger or sadness Inflection---. surprise---. fear. activity. involves the rising and falling pitch of the voice. satisfaction.Vocal qualities     Resonance----relates to the amplitude of the vibrations---the resounding nature of the voice. Enunciation---.

Interest Anger 9. The face and eyes are the most expressive means of body communication and they convey 10 different types of meaning: Happiness 6. Bewilderment Sadness 10.Kinesics---Communicating through Body Movement       Communicating through body movement. Contempt Fear 8. Disgust Surprise 7. Determination .

“I can’t hear you” Circling the first finger parallel with the side of the head---. They often replace verbal messages entirely.Five categories of Kinesics 1.“ That person’s crazy” Forming the first and second fingers in the shape of a V---“victory” Shrugging shoulders and raising palms of hands upward----“I don’t know” Tapping finger against skull----“I’m thinking” . For example.“I’m full of food” Patting the adjacent seat---. Emblems Many body movements act as symbols with relatively fixed verbal translations.        Patting the stomach-----.“Sit beside me” Cupping hand behind ear----.

2. Can you imagine the description using only words? Do you automatically wave an arm as you call “Taxi”? . Illustrators synchronize with and complement words. they use illustrators. Illustrators  When people move and gesture as they speak. picture a man telling you about the size of a fish he caught. For example.

those motions act as regulators. Examples include: Mutual gazes Grooming actions Embraces Waves Smiles Shoulder slaps Head movements Forward leanings Handshakes Head nods Posture changes Shift in eye contact Conversational turn-taking involves such acts as raising and lowering eyebrows. Regulators       When body motion serve to add instructions or controls to oral transactions.3. leaning forward and backward. and moving hands. .

or the environment. rubbing. . and covering eyes……. They often appear as adaptive means for coping with discomfort created by negative feelings about oneself. Adaptors   Adaptors develop as responses to learning situations.4. many of them in childhood. other people. pinching. scratching. Examples of adaptors include picking or holding things.

5. Postures and Gestures     Frequent leg position shifts Hands holding onto knees Hand pressed into cheeks Posture of superiors and subordinates conveys meaning .

Subordinates often lower their heads and shoulders when speaking.superiors----.leaning forward when speaking. leaning backward when listening .frequently keep their heads raised when communicating with others.Classification of Body Movements       Attitudes -----. “I am on your side and not on her side. will communicate. especially the way the legs are pointed. Affective States of Moods Approval seeking Inclusiveness metaphor involves cues as to whose side you are on.” Interaction Markers ---. The positioning of the body.

Fixed Space It refers to buildings and other fairly permanent structures. 1. How close or far they stand in relation to another person. such as walls. . You will probably communicate more with those individuals whose offices are closer to rather than farther from yours. Feature. or how they arrange the office furniture has a real impact on communication. The manner in which buildings are laid out and the sequence of rooms and offices have a considerable influence on communication.Proxemics-----. where they sit in a room.Communicating with Space People use the space around them to communicate.

such as desks and chairs.Semi fixed Feature Space  The placement and arrangement of movable objects. is referred to as semi fixed feature space .

ranges from 12 feet to the limits of a visibility and hearing.about 18 inches from other person.a handshake Personal distance----.ranges from 18 inches to four feet--casual and friendly conversation. Confidential information in offices--.     . Social distance-----. There are four different zones or distances for different types of social interaction: Intimate distance----.ranges from four feet to about eight feet---business setting.Personal Space The physical distance people maintain in their encounters with others is known as personal space. Teacher and students---Public distance----.

affection. environment. attention-getting) . Touching actions serve as regulators (guiding. encouragement. power and status. culture. age. and the full range of emotions. For children and adults.Touch    It shows tenderness. the amount of accepted touching varies with many factors such as gender. intimacy. the state of relationship. and immediacy.

Clothing. . and Accessories.Appearance   1) 2) 3) Your appearance both reflects and creates your own self-image---as well as the image that others have of you. Three categorize can organize a review of the nonverbal communication inherent in: The person.

occupation. The Person          Height and weight. and sideburns. Age. Skin colour leads to racial stereotypes. Hair color Moustaches. Length of the hair. and sex. beards. culture. handicap. Grooming and cleanliness Attractiveness.1. The general carriage and demeanor of a person .

2. Clothing  Make mental association as these types of grab call types of people to mind: white socks Tight-fitting dressing Imprinted T-shirts Tailored suits Evening gowns Black leather Corduroy Sheer fabric Leisure suits Sandals jeans Fur Coats Boots Frills Bow ties Stockings Polyester knit pantsuits Cashmere sweaters .

occupation.  Choices of clothing speak quite loudly about one’s personality. behaviour. power. status. and confidence. values. attitudes. Clothing for the business executive has assumed such importance that several bestselling books have as their sole purpose the description of the kinds of clothing that establish an image of power. .

Accessories Articles other than garments contribute to appearance and dress. Recall the imagery you associate with these examples of such accessories: Tatoos Leather Emblems Buttons Eyeglasses Briefcases Cosmetics Sunglasses Earrings False eyelashes False fingernails Rings Tinted hair Scarves  .3.

weeks. seconds. the seasons. days. Arriving late for an interview. decades. minutes. years. hours. Lightness and darkness.Time     Centuries. or business meetings Taking account of different time zones .

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