Blood Typing

By: Caraan, Cu, del Rosario, Dino, Dumangon, Otchengco

What is ABO Blood Group System?
Classification of human blood based on the inherited properties of the red blood cells. Determined by the presence of Antigens A and B. Most common blood group system.

Has four blood groups :
A, B, O, and AB blood groups. A blood type can either be Rh+ or Rh-

The people behind the ABO Blood Group System…

A.Karl Landsteiner Austrian Scientist Discovered three of the four blood group system in the year 1900. and O blood groups . B.

Alfred von Decastello & Adrian Sturli Discovered the AB blood group in the year 1900 .

Correct blood group inheritance pattern of multiple alleles at one locus.Ludwik Hirszfield. . von Dungern & Felix Burnstein Discovered the heritability of ABO Blood Groups in 1924. E.

Watkins & Morgan English scientists They discovered that the ABO epitopes were conferred by sugars. N-acetylgalactosamine for Type A blood Galactose for Type B blood .

ABO Blood Group System Essential for blood transfusion Type AB blood does not contain antibodies making it the universal recipient. Type O blood contains no antigens making it the universal donor. .

Rh Factor Presence or absence of the D antigen. Defined as Rh+ or Rh-. Incompatibility can cause Blue-Baby Syndrome of the new born. .

Methods of Blood Typing .

Three Manual Methods Glass slide or white porcelain tile Glass test tube Microwell plate or microplate .

Newer Techniques Column technique (sephadex gel) Solid phase tests .

.Slide or Tile Testing This technique is used for emergency ABO grouping tests It should always be supplemented with a cell and serum grouping using any one of the other above mentioned techniques.

Slide of Tile Testing Slide or tile testing is not recommended for routine use because it is not reliable for weakly reactive antigens on cells serum grouping with low titre anti-A or anti-B .

Add 1 drop of 20% test red cell suspension to each drop of the typing antiserum Mix the cells and reagent using a clean stick. Spread each mixture evenly on the slide over an area of 10-15 mm diameter. .Procedure Place 1 drop of anti-A and 1 drop of anti-B reagent separately on a labeled slide or tile.

. Then rock again and look for agglutination. Record the results.Procedure Tilt the slide and leave the test for 2 minutes at room temperature (22°-24°C).

giving false positive results. .Disadvantages of Slide Method Less sensitive than the tube test Drying up of the reaction mixture can cause aggregation of cells. Weaker reactions are difficult to interpret.

of lOx75mm size.Tube Testing Test tubes either of glass or plastic may be used. Cell grouping / forward grouping Serum grouping / reverse grouping . The tube technique is more sensitive than slide technique for ABO grouping.

Anti-B. Ac. Prepare once washed 2-5% suspension of the test cells. Bc and Cc. Anti-AB. Anti A.Cell and Serum Grouping Spin test sample to separate serum. . Set up 6 tubes correctly labeled with donor/patient no.

Add 1 drop of 2-5% test cell suspension in the three tubes A. .Cell and Serum Grouping Add I drop of anti-A in tube labeled A. and anti-AB in tube labeled AB.B and AB. anti-B in tube labeled B.

Mix all the 6 tubes and centrifuge at 1000 rpm for 1 minute. B cells in labeled tube Bc and 0 cells in tube labeled Oc. . Add I drop each of reagents A cells in labeled tube Ac.Bc and Cc.Cell and Serum Grouping Add 2 drops each of the test serum in tubes labeled Ac.

Record results according to grades of agglutination. .Cell and Serum Grouping Resuspend cell button by gently shaking the tubes and read against well-lit background.

Direct and Indirect… .

obtained by finger pricks) .Direct ABO Blood Typing This test detects the presence of A and B antigens on RBCs surface by means of agglutination utilizing commercial antisera.e. it can be performed on few drops of venous or capillary blood (i. It is a basic and simple test. .



.Indirect “Serum” Blood Typing This test is used to confirm and must not substitute the front grouping that remains the pillar of ABO typing.

.Indirect “Serum” Blood Typing Reverse grouping is useful in resolving the infrequent but possible dubious or weak results in the front typing. and it helps to identify the rare cases of false negative and false positive results.


Antigens and Antibodies… .




Inheritance of ABO Blood Types… .

Inheritance of ABO Blood Groups Controlled by the long arm of chromosome no. IA represents Type A blood. Type O is the recessive allele. . Type A and Type B are codominant. and i. and i for the Type O blood. IB. IB for Type B blood . 9 Composed of three alleles: IA.

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