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Hypothesis

Six years following catastrophic fire, soil nitrogen will be at low levels due to lack of litter and duff that sequester nitrogen.
Nitrogen levels will be only slightly reduced following salvage logging due to lack of nitrogen in cellulose.

Function of Nitrogen
Ammonia (NH4-) preferred by late seral forests
Litter, duff, detritus, urine

Nitrite (NO3-) intermediate step between ammonia and nitrate


Toxic

Nitrate (NO2-) preferred by early seral pioneers


Fixed and bound by bacteria Converted to ammonia at biota death Mineralized from ammonia as bacterial byproduct

Comparison of Nitrogen Levels in Forest Soils


concentration (ppm)
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

0.7 4
Unburne d

0.47

B urne d

0.4 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.08 0.05 0.03

B urne d S a lva ge

NH4-

NO2-N

NO3-N

Burned vs. Unburned


Decreasing factors Ammonia Nitrate Increasing factors Phosphorus Potassium No change Nitrite > t Significant? .018 .05 yes yes

.049 .95

yes no

.33

no

Burned vs. Burned Salvage


Decreasing factors Ammonia Nitrate Nitrite Phosphate Potassium > t Significant? .257 .201 .15 .71 .63 no no no no no

Function of Other Macronutrients


Phosphate (PO4) from mineral soil Makes up phospholipid bilayer of cell membrane Responsible for energy (ATP) Potassium (K) from potash, a volcanic ash Aids in diffusing nutrients into roots turgor pressure Aids in fruit sizing Aids in nerve transmission

Comparison of Phosphate and Potassium in Forest Soils


concentration (ppm)
10 8 6 4 2 0 1 .63 6.3 5.1 3 7 .1 7 7 .61 7 .1 7

Unburne d B urne d B urne d S a lva ge

PO4

Soil Chemistry Statistics


Unburned vs. Burned Forest Soils Statistically significant results included ammonia, nitrate, phosphorus Burned vs. Burned Salvaged Forest Soils None of the parameters compared were statistically significant.

Importance of Soil Depth


Soil depth is indicative of plant size, density, and source of topsoil.

Importance of Duff and Litter


Litter comes from deciduous trees which has LNE (low nitrogen efficiency) Duff comes from conifers which has HNE (high nitrogen efficiency)

Litter and duff: Hold soil moisture Block sun and cool soil Sequester Ammonia

Importance of Rhizome Depth


Rhizomes occupy the root zones where most: Water is diffused Micronutrients are captured Nitrogen cycling occurs Rhizomes are the most active part of the root. The symbiotic relationship between microbes and plants allow Nitrogen cycling. Microbes consume humus releasing NO3- as a byproduct.

Comparison of Depth in Forest Soils


depth (cm)
80 60 40 20 0
5 3 .4 4 3 7 .82 .4 6 6 .97 .1
Unburne d B urne d B urne d S a lva ge

2 .50 .1 0

Soil

Duff

Rhizome

Importance of Moisture
Soil moisture is a limiting factor in Eastern Oregon forests. Moisture determines the: Rate of plant growth Density of vegetation Climax species

Moisture also affects the severity of fire impact on soils

Comparison of Moisture in Forest Soils


25

percent moisture

20 15 10 5 0

18
Unburne d B urne d B urne d S a lva ge

3 .6

4 .8

Moisture

Importance of Temperature
High temperature is caused by lack of canopy, shrubs, and exposed soils and: Lowers soil moisture Increases soil biota activity Cycles Nitrogen irregularly Low temperature is the result of high shade, thick litter and: Raise soil moisture Decrease soil biota activity Cycles Nitrogen evenly

Comparison of Temperature in Forest Soils

degrees centigrade

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

1 7 .6

1 9.9

21 .9
Unburne d B urne d B urne d S a lva ge

Temperature

Importance of Compaction
Soil peds are made up of sand/silt/clay particles Soil texture determines how much air and water space exists Low compaction indicates peds with good air and water capacity High compaction indicates soils with low water capacity and infiltration.

Comparison of Compaction in Forest Soils


pounds per square inch (psi)
1 80 1 60 1 40 1 20 1 00 80 60 40 20 0

1 3 5.8 1 1 5.1 9 9 .4
Unburne d B urne d B urne d S a lva ge

Com pac tion

Burned vs. Unburned


Decreasing factors Soil depth Percent moisture Compaction Increasing factors Duff depth Rhizome depth Temperature

> t Significant? .0001 yes


.0001 yes

.358

no

.0001
.041 .0001

yes
yes yes

Burned vs. Burned Salvage


Duff depth was similar and mostly absent

Decreasing factors Compaction


Increasing factors Soil depth Rhizome depth Percent moisture Temperature

> t Significant? .524 no

.167 .716 .016 .0001

no no no yes

Soil Characteristics Statistics


Unburned vs. Burned Forest Soils Statistically significant results included soil depth, litter depth, rhizome depth, percent moisture, and temperature.

Burned vs. Burned Salvaged Forest Soils The only statistical significant difference was temperature.

Interpretations
6 years following fire, nitrogen decreases due to
Denitrification converted to N2 (78% of atmosphere)

Potassium and Phosphate increase due to


Mineralization

Following salvage, nitrogen decreased slightly


Incineration of nitrogen-rich leaves occurred during fire previously Dead trunks contain little nitrogen (cellulose)

Implications for Treatment


Treat soils immediately following fire to maintain high nitrogen Especially in the form of Ammonia Supports perennials and late seral succession Encourage nitrogen fixing plants Ex. Silver Lupine (Lupinus argentius) Seed within first year to sequester released nitrogen