Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC


Introduction • Why SDLC? • SDLC should result in a high quality system that meets or • exceeds customer expectations. • works effectively and efficiently in the current and planned information technology infrastructure. . within time and cost estimates. and is cheap to maintain and cost-effective to enhance.

.Waterfall Model Each phase within the overall cycle may be made up of several steps.

Stages • • • • • • • • Terms of Reference Feasibility Study Analysis Design Development Testing Evaluation Maintenance .

roles and responsibilities (Who will take part in it) Resources.e. Deliverables. • Create detailed terms of ref as it is critical to success of the project. Following should be defined:– – – – Vision. Sum of the work at CHILD level = 100% of work represented by PARENT – Work should not include any thing which is outside the scope of project – Should contain planned outcome (Milestones. quality etc) & not planned activities. scope and deliverables (What is to be achieved) Stakeholders. cost. financial & quality plan (How it will be achieved) Work Breakdown Structure & Schedule (When it will be achieved) • WBS Follow 100% rule i. resources. scope. due dates. .Terms of Reference • The mgt decides what capabilities & objectives the proposed sys to incorporate.

WBS Example .

– Management Support? User support? Need for change? Workforce reduction? – Is Training required? – Will users be involved from beginning? – Will consumer experience adversely affect? – Will legal or ethical issues need to be considered? .Feasibility Study • To see whether the project is worthwhile to proceed further the stages are:• Operational Feasibility.

HW & equipment SW including in-house and to be customized Formal and informal training Licenses and fees Tangible benefits – Reduces overtime.Feasibility Study • Technical Feasibility – – – – HW. SW. . new Web Site improves company’s image. Intangible Benefits User friendly system improves job satisfaction. Sales tracking system improves marketing. Costs involved include:• • • • • • • People including IT staff. improves service. NW & Skin ware required? Technical Experts required? Capacity for future needs? Is prototype required? • Economic Feasibility Project benefits of the proposed system should outweigh the estimated costs. sophisticated inventory control and eliminates production delays.

– Has management established firm timetable. – Will accelerated schedule pose any risks? . – Can IT Team handle schedule.Feasibility Study • Schedule Feasibility Project can be implemented in an acceptable time frame.

the requirements should be recorded in • Document. • IS professionals must involve end users in this process to ensure that the new system will function adequately and meets their needs and expectations. the organizational environment. developing the functional requirements of a system that can meet the needs of the users. • The requirements documentation should be referred to throughout the rest of the system development process to ensure the developing project aligns with user needs and requirements. or some other form. • Also. .Analysis • Requirements analysis is the process of analyzing the following:– – – – information needs of the end users. any system presently being used. • Email • Executable prototype.

RFID. . Provide way to leave. • Describe Guidelines for Data Entry input Screens. • Points to remember:– – – – – – – – – – – – Reduce input volume Attractive data entry screens Validation checks Select suitable input data entry methods Develop effective data entry control (Authentication) Position pointer in input box Suitable caption for input box Display sample formats (MM/DD/YY) Avoid leading zeroes 003 and fill trailing zeroes 10. barcode). tablets.00 Fill default values automatically Give suitable error messages. retina.Design • Input Design • Design for various types of inputs (Finger print. Stress on how data is captured. Camera.

– Start with conclusion (Reverse pyramid) – Have Hyperlinks – Indicate mandatory input boxes . – Bulleted list – One idea per paragraph.Design • General Rule for Web Page Design – Only 16% people read word by word. – Highlight Key words.

Menus . SW.Design • Output Design – – – – – – What is the purpose of output? Who wants info and why? What specific info is required? Output to be printed or on screen or printed+screen When info is required and how frequently it needs to be updated? Does security or confidentiality is required? • Types of outputs? • • • • • Internet Emails Audio FAX Computer operated Microfilm • User Interfaces • Internet. HW. Screens.

Development • Coding and debugging is the act of creating the final system. This step is done by IS professionals. – Use naming conventions – Indentation – Suitable remarks – Code Reusability – Modular approach .

Testing • Unit Testing – Programmer carries out testing for syntax errors and logical errors – Team carries out code review. – Software tools can be used to determine the location and potential causes of program errors. – Test Plan How and when testing should be done. – The PM or designated analyst should also check the test results. – Identify and eliminate execution errors – Test data should contain correct data and erroneous data and should test all possible situations which could occur. .

Testing • Integration Testing – Integration testing should not be carried out till all the unit test results are successful. – Testers should enter data. or live data. and managers that the program meets all specifications. – Testing of two or more programmes which depend on each other. including samples of actual. • System Testing – This is testing of entire info system – This includes typical processing situations & is intended to assure users. valid or invalid. – System analyst usually develops the test cases – Both normal and unusual conditions should be tested. and produce reports to simulate actual operating conditions – System should handle all input data. – Backup and restart capabilities are appropriate – Demonstrate that user can interact with the system successfully – System should be capable of handling predictable volume of data . perform queries. developers.

Software Quality Assurance • To assure quality the SW developers should consider SW Engineering concepts. – Recently it has been upgraded to Capability Maturity Model Integration. • Software Engineering Institute developed a set of SW standards like:– Capability Maturity Model (CMM) 1991. (CMMI) This integrates the software and systems development. In this ISO 9000-3 provides framework for SW development. internationally recognized standards and careful Project Management Techniques. . – International Organization of Standardization ISO 9001 – 2000.

– System changeover (Parallel operation. Pilot operation i.Installation & Evaluation • Following steps will be carried out in Installation and evaluation:– Prepare a separate operational and test environment. – Perform data conversion.e. – Provide training for users. managers and IT staff. complete changeover at a part of organization or phased operation) – Obtain feedback from the users – Carry out a post-implementation evaluation of the system – Present final report to manager .

e.e. . reliable or maintainable.e. – Preventive Maintenance i. To carryout analysis of area where trouble is likely to occur. The organization may enter into AMC for – Corrective Maintenance i.e. adds enhancement to operational system and makes system easier to use. – Adaptive maintenance i. diagnoses and corrects errors in an operational system. change the operational system to make it more efficient. – Perfective Maintenance i.Maintenance • SW application must be maintained by an experienced team..

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