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# TIME RESPONS

## Dasar Sistem Kontrol

System Response
This module is concern with the response of
LTI system.
L.T. is used to investigate the response of first
and second order systems. Higher order
systems can be considered to be the sum of
the response of first and second order system.
Unit step, ramp, and sinusoidal signal play
important role in control system analysis. It is
therefore we will investigate this signals.

(1)
2. Convolution
Output of LTI system is the convolution
of its input and its impulse response:

h(t)

r(t) c(t)
}

t t t = =
t
d t h r t h t r t c ) ( ) ( ) ( * ) ( ) (
}

t t t =
t
d h t r ) ( ) (
Taking the L.T. of (1) yields
C(s) = R(s)H(s) (2)
Where C(s) is the L.T. of c(t)
R(s) is the L.T. of r(t)
H(s) is the L.T. of h(t)
H(s) is called the transfer function (T.F)
3. Derivative
If the input is r(t) then the output is c(t)
where r(t) denotes the derivative of r(t)
Review of some LTI properties
We will express system as in figure below,
system input is r(t), output is c(t), and
impulse response is h(t)
4. Integral
If the input is }r(t)dt then the output is
}c(t)dt
1. Impulse response
Impulse response, denoted by h(t), is the
output of the system when its input is
impulse o(t). h(t) is called the impulse
response of the system or the weighting
function
5. Poles and Zero
T.F. is usually rational and therefore can be
expressed as N(s)/D(s). Poles is the values
of s resulting T.F to be infinite. Zeroes is
the values of s resulting T.F to be zero
System Response
Poles, Zeros, and System Response
The output response of a system is the sum of two
responses: the forced response and the natural response
The poles of a transfer function are (1) the values of
the Laplace transform variable, s, that cause the
transfer function to become infinite or (2) any roots of
the denominator of the transfer function that are
common to roots of the numerator
The zeros of a transfer function are (1) the values of the
Laplace transform variable, s, that cause the transfer
function to become zero, or (2) any roots of the
numerator of the transfer function that are common to
roots of the denominator.
Pole dan Zero Pada System Orde Satu
Fungsi alih sistem orde 1,
Untuk mencari A dan B,
Persamaan respon sistemnya,
Secara grafis,
INTRO
Time Response of the First Order Systems.
We can found the differential equation
first we write (1) as
The diff. Eq. is the inverse L.T. of (2)
Now we take the L.T of (3) and include
the initial condition term to get
1 ) (
) (
) (
+
= =
s
K
s R
s C
s G
(1)
) (

) (

1
s R
K
s C s =
|
.
|

\
|
+
(2)
) ( ) (
1
) ( t r

K
t c

t c = +
(3)
) (

) (

1
) 0 ( ) ( s R
K
s C c s sC = +
(4)
Solving for C(s) yields
) / 1 (
)R(s) / (
) / 1 (
) 0 (
) (
+
+
+
=
s
K
s
c
s C (5)
Note that the initial condition as an
input has a Laplace transform of c(0),
which is constant.
The inverse L.T of a constant is impulse
o(t). Hence the initial condition appears
as the impulse function
Here we can see that the impulse
function has a practical meaning, even
though it is not a realizable signal

+ s
K

1
1
+ s
R(s)
c(0)
+
+
C(s)
Here we will investigate the time response
of the first order systems.
The transfer function of a general first
order system can be written as:
The eq. can be shown in the block diagram as
shown in the figure bellow.
Time Response of the First Order Systems.
Unit step response
For unit step input R(s)=1/s, then
Since we usually ignore the initial
condition in block diagram, we use the
system block diagram as shown bellow.
) (
) / 1 (
) / (
) ( s R
s
K
s C
+
=
(1)
Suppose that the initial condition is
zero then

+ s
K
R(s) C(s)
/ 1 s
1
) / 1 (
) / (
) (
+

+ =
+
=
s
K
s
K
s
K
s C
(2)
Taking the inverse L.T of (2) yields
) 1 ( ) (

t
e K t c

=
(3)
The first term originates in the pole of input
R(s) and is called the forced response or steady
state response The second term originates in
the pole of the transfer function G(s) and is
called the natural response Figure below plot
c(t)
t
c(t)
K
1/t
) 1 (

t
e K

## The final value or the steady state value of c(t)

is K that is
lim c(t)= K
t
c(t) is considered to reach final value after
reaching 98% of its final value. The parameter t
is called the time constant. The smaller the time
constant the faster the system reaches
the final value.
Time Response of Second Order System
2 2
2
2 ) (
) (
) (
n n
n
s s s R
s C
s G
e + ,e +
e
= =
(1)
The standard form second order system is
Where , = damping ratio, e
n
= natural
frequency, or undamped frequency.
Consider the unit step response of this system
s s
s R s G s C
n n
n
) 2 (
) ( ) ( ) (
2 2
2
e + ,e +
e
= =
(2)
Case 1: 0<,<1 (complex poles), c(t) is
) sin( 1 ) ( u + e = t t c
n
(3)
). ( tan and 1 define
1
,
|

= u , = |
For this system we have
Time constant = t = 1/,e
n
; frequency = |e
n

e
n
t
c(t)
,=0
0.7
2
0.2
The poles of the TF is s = ,e
n
\(1,
2
)
This system is said to be underdamped
Case 2: ,>1 (real unequal poles), c(t) is
2 1
/
2
/
1
1 ) (
t t
+ + =
t t
e k e k t c (4)
This system is said to be overdamped
Case 3: ,=1 (real equal poles), c(t) is
t t
+ + =
/
2
/
1
1 ) (
t t
te k e k t c (5)
This system is said to be critically damped
Case 4: ,=0 (imaginary poles), c(t) is
) sin( 1 ) (
1
u + |e =
,e
|
t e t c
n
t
n
(3)
This system is said to be undamped
General Second-Order System
Natural Frequency, n
The natural frequency of a second-order system is the frequency of
oscillation of the system without damping
Damping Ratio,
So,
= =
PROBLEM:
Given the transfer function of Eq. , find and n
Time Response Specification in Design
The typical of unit step response of a system
is as in figure below
e
n
t
c(t)
M
pt

1.0
0.9
0.1
T
r
T
p

1+ d
1 d
c
ss

T
s

Rise time T
r
is the time required for the
response to rise from 10% to 90% of the final
value c
ss
. M
pt
is the peak value, and T
p
is the
time required to reach M
pt
.
M
pt
c
ss
percent overshoot = 100%
c
ss

Settling time, T
s
,is the time required for the
output to settle within a certain percent of its
final value. Common values are 5% and 2%.
Settling time is proportional to the t,
k

T
s
= k t =
,e
n

If 2% is used to specify the settling value then
k=4. T
r
, T
s
,and c
ss
, are equally meaningful for,
over, critically, or under-damped cases, while
T
p
,and M
p
,are meaningful only for under-
damped cases.

Under-damped cases.
To find T
p,
we differentiate c(t) and equalizing
the result to zero and solve the equation for t.
We will find that

2
1 /
1
1
, ,t
+ =
, e
t
= e M T
p
n
p
% 100 shoot over %
2
1 /
=
, ,t
e
Time Response Specification in Design
Recall that
,
t
= e
, e
t
=
1
or
1
p n
n
p
T T
and
% 100 shoot over %
2
1 /
=
, ,t
e
Both %over-shoot and e
n
T
p
are functions
only of , and can be plotted as in the
following figure
%over-shoot
e
n
T
p
100
80
60
40
20
0
5.0
4.6
4.2
3.8
3.4
3.0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
%
o
v
e
r
-
s
h
o
o
t

e
n
T
p

,
Example:
Servomotor is used to control the position of plotter
pen as in the following figure.
a
a
a
a
K s s
K
s s K
s s K
s T
5 . 0 2
5 . 0
) 2 ( / 5 . 0 1
) 2 ( / 5 . 0
) (
2
+ +
=
+ +
+
=
a n n
K 5 . 0 and 2 2
2
= e = ,e
Here we have
Suppose that we want to have ,=1, the fastest
response with no overshoot then
e
n
= 1 and K
a
=2.
Note that the settling time is
T
p
= 4/ , e
n
= 4s
It is not fast enough. If we want the faster response
First we have to choose a different motor, then
Redesign the compensator.
0.5/s(s+2)
motor
R(s)
K
p

Amplifier

+
TRANSIENT RESPONS ANALYSIS WITH MATLAB
Example 1 : find the unit step-respons for following equation,
TRANSIENT RESPONS ANALYSIS WITH MATLAB(2)
Example 2 : find the unit impuls- respons for following equation,
Sumber Pustaka
Norman S. Nise, Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition,
2004, Wiley & Sons..