) (
1
s R
K
s C s =

.

\

+
(2)
) ( ) (
1
) ( t r
K
t c
t c = +
(3)
) (
) (
1
) 0 ( ) ( s R
K
s C c s sC = +
(4)
Solving for C(s) yields
) / 1 (
)R(s) / (
) / 1 (
) 0 (
) (
+
+
+
=
s
K
s
c
s C (5)
Note that the initial condition as an
input has a Laplace transform of c(0),
which is constant.
The inverse L.T of a constant is impulse
o(t). Hence the initial condition appears
as the impulse function
Here we can see that the impulse
function has a practical meaning, even
though it is not a realizable signal
+ s
K
1
1
+ s
R(s)
c(0)
+
+
C(s)
Here we will investigate the time response
of the first order systems.
The transfer function of a general first
order system can be written as:
The eq. can be shown in the block diagram as
shown in the figure bellow.
Time Response of the First Order Systems.
Unit step response
For unit step input R(s)=1/s, then
Since we usually ignore the initial
condition in block diagram, we use the
system block diagram as shown bellow.
) (
) / 1 (
) / (
) ( s R
s
K
s C
+
=
(1)
Suppose that the initial condition is
zero then
+ s
K
R(s) C(s)
/ 1 s
1
) / 1 (
) / (
) (
+
+ =
+
=
s
K
s
K
s
K
s C
(2)
Taking the inverse L.T of (2) yields
) 1 ( ) (
t
e K t c
=
(3)
The first term originates in the pole of input
R(s) and is called the forced response or steady
state response The second term originates in
the pole of the transfer function G(s) and is
called the natural response Figure below plot
c(t)
t
c(t)
K
1/t
) 1 (
t
e K
= u , = 
For this system we have
Time constant = t = 1/,e
n
; frequency = e
n
e
n
t
c(t)
,=0
0.7
2
0.2
The poles of the TF is s = ,e
n
\(1,
2
)
This system is said to be underdamped
Case 2: ,>1 (real unequal poles), c(t) is
2 1
/
2
/
1
1 ) (
t t
+ + =
t t
e k e k t c (4)
This system is said to be overdamped
Case 3: ,=1 (real equal poles), c(t) is
t t
+ + =
/
2
/
1
1 ) (
t t
te k e k t c (5)
This system is said to be critically damped
Case 4: ,=0 (imaginary poles), c(t) is
) sin( 1 ) (
1
u + e =
,e

t e t c
n
t
n
(3)
This system is said to be undamped
General SecondOrder System
Natural Frequency, n
The natural frequency of a secondorder system is the frequency of
oscillation of the system without damping
Damping Ratio,
So,
= =
PROBLEM:
Given the transfer function of Eq. , find and n
Time Response Specification in Design
The typical of unit step response of a system
is as in figure below
e
n
t
c(t)
M
pt
1.0
0.9
0.1
T
r
T
p
1+ d
1 d
c
ss
T
s
Rise time T
r
is the time required for the
response to rise from 10% to 90% of the final
value c
ss
. M
pt
is the peak value, and T
p
is the
time required to reach M
pt
.
M
pt
c
ss
percent overshoot = 100%
c
ss
Settling time, T
s
,is the time required for the
output to settle within a certain percent of its
final value. Common values are 5% and 2%.
Settling time is proportional to the t,
k
T
s
= k t =
,e
n
If 2% is used to specify the settling value then
k=4. T
r
, T
s
,and c
ss
, are equally meaningful for,
over, critically, or underdamped cases, while
T
p
,and M
p
,are meaningful only for under
damped cases.
Underdamped cases.
To find T
p,
we differentiate c(t) and equalizing
the result to zero and solve the equation for t.
We will find that
2
1 /
1
1
, ,t
+ =
, e
t
= e M T
p
n
p
% 100 shoot over %
2
1 /
=
, ,t
e
Time Response Specification in Design
Recall that
,
t
= e
, e
t
=
1
or
1
p n
n
p
T T
and
% 100 shoot over %
2
1 /
=
, ,t
e
Both %overshoot and e
n
T
p
are functions
only of , and can be plotted as in the
following figure
%overshoot
e
n
T
p
100
80
60
40
20
0
5.0
4.6
4.2
3.8
3.4
3.0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
%
o
v
e
r

s
h
o
o
t
e
n
T
p
,
Example:
Servomotor is used to control the position of plotter
pen as in the following figure.
a
a
a
a
K s s
K
s s K
s s K
s T
5 . 0 2
5 . 0
) 2 ( / 5 . 0 1
) 2 ( / 5 . 0
) (
2
+ +
=
+ +
+
=
a n n
K 5 . 0 and 2 2
2
= e = ,e
Here we have
Suppose that we want to have ,=1, the fastest
response with no overshoot then
e
n
= 1 and K
a
=2.
Note that the settling time is
T
p
= 4/ , e
n
= 4s
It is not fast enough. If we want the faster response
First we have to choose a different motor, then
Redesign the compensator.
0.5/s(s+2)
motor
R(s)
K
p
Amplifier
+
TRANSIENT RESPONS ANALYSIS WITH MATLAB
Example 1 : find the unit steprespons for following equation,
TRANSIENT RESPONS ANALYSIS WITH MATLAB(2)
Example 2 : find the unit impuls respons for following equation,
Sumber Pustaka
Norman S. Nise, Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition,
2004, Wiley & Sons..