You are on page 1of 36

Basic EFI

Layout
Diaphragm Spring Manifold Vacuum

Injectors

Pintle

Seat

Fuel Pump Fuel Tank

Return Line

ECM Controls
To determine the amount of fuel required, the ECM needs to know how much air is entering the engine Two methods for measuring airflow
Speed-Density Mass Airflow

Speed-Density
The ECM receives input from
MAP (engine vacuum) TPS (throttle position) CTS (coolant temperature) IAT (air temperature) O2 (rich/lean indicator) CKP (engine RPM)

Speed-Density
Based on the engine vacuum, engine rpm, intake air temperature, and the preprogrammed volumetric efficiency of the engine, the computer calculates the amount of air entering the engine Engine operating temperature, throttle position, and rich/lean indications from the O2 are then used to calculate/adjust the required amount of fuel

Speed Density
O2 CTS

TPS

MAP
CKP IAT ECM Airflow ECM

Injectors

Mass Airflow
Based on the airflow data received from the MAF engine operating temperature, throttle position, and rich/lean indications from the O2 are used to calculate/adjust the required amount of fuel

Mass Airflow
ECM

O2

CTS

TPS CKP

Airflow

MAF

ECM

Injectors

Fuel Injectors
Solenoid type ECM controls the ground side of the injector circuit Poppet type When pressure reaches a predetermined level the injector is forced open Diesel, CFI, CIS

Types of Fuel Injection


Throttle Body Injection (TBI) Port Fuel Injection (PFI) (MPFI) Central Point Injection (CPI) Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Constant Injection System (CIS) Different manufacturers may call similar systems by different names

Throttle Body Injection (TBI)


The throttle body looks similar to a carburetor The throttle body contains the fuel injectors and usually the pressure regulator Pressure regulator does not use vacuum to cut back fuel pressure during high vacuum conditions

Port Fuel Injection


Throttle body only controls the amount of air entering the engine Injectors are located in each intake port One injector per cylinder May use an additional cold start injector Intake manifold only has to deliver air therefore problems with fuel puddling are greatly reduced Injectors may be batch fired or sequentially fired (SFI) Tuned port injection operates the same as port fuel injection, except the intake manifold is designed for optimal cylinder filling

Port Fuel Injection

Port Fuel Injection

Port Fuel Injection (Batch Fired)

Cold Start Injector

Central Point Fuel Injection


Used on GM Vortec engines Central injection assembly located in the lower intake Fuel flow controlled by electric solenoids in the CPI assembly May be batch fired or sequentially fired Pressure regulator located in the CPI assembly Actual fuel injectors are mechanical Wont open unless the specified fuel pressure is present Operates at a relatively high fuel pressure (55-61 PSI)

Central Point Fuel Injection

Central Point Fuel Injection

Poppet Injector

Central Point Fuel Injection


Pressure Line

CPI Assembly

ECM Actuated Solenoid-type Injectors Return Line Pressure Regulator Poppet Injectors

Constant Injection System (CIS)


Mechanical injection system Used extensively by the Germans Amount of fuel delivered is controlled by altering fuel pressure at the injector rather that injector on time Uses a air vane to sense engine airflow and change fuel delivery rates

Constant Injection Mechanical System Injector


Metering Valve

Differential Pressure Valve Filter

Pump Air Vane Pressure Regulator Tank

Constant Injection System (CIS-E)

Idle Speed Control


In EFI systems the ECM controls idle speed
Throttle opening control Throttle Air Bypass

To increase idle speed, more air is bypassed by the throttle blades To decrease idle speed, less air is bypassed by the throttle blades

IDLE SPEED CONTROL


To comply with federal emissions standards, idle speed control systems are used Idle speed controlled by electronic module Earlier systems, engines idled in open loop Idle systems depend on inputs to PCM

Throttle Kicker controlled by Vacuum Diaphragm

Electrically controlled by solenoid Operates during engine warm up, with air conditioning on and engine overheating Some act as a dashpot
327C

Throttle Kicker and Idle Stop Solenoid


Electrically controlled Vacuum operated throttle kicker for additional load Allows curb idle speed to be lower Controlled by PCM Must be adjusted
327C

IDLE SPEED CONTROL MOTOR (ISC)


PCM controlled Reversible gear drive dc motor PCM reverses polarity Has idle tracking switch Must be adjusted

325C

ISC Schematic

IDLE AIR CONTROL (IAC)


Used with Fuel Injection systems PCM controlled Stepper motor Diverts air around throttle plate Do not over extend when replacing Not adjustable

Throttle Body IAC Location


Screws into throttle body Must be careful to not over-tighten Must keep passages clean Can use Scanner to diagnose idle problems

508L

IAC SCHEMATIC

Contains two motor windings Can test with ohmmeter (GM are 40 - 80 ohms) Use IAC Test tool to check operation Can monitor operation with Scanner

IAC SCOPE PATTERNS


Typical patterns Compare patterns to known good patterns Some IACs operate on 12 volts and others on less voltage IAC operates with a duty cycle

ADJUSTING CURB IDLE (Idle Hardstop or Minimum Idle speed)


Minimum idle rpm is factory adjusted Idle must be adjusted correctly Passages must be clean Some systems, you must adjust TPS also
502L

IDLE SPEED ADJUSTMENT


Must shut off idle air to adjust minimum idle speed Use idle plug on TBI units Other systems, you just turn a screw to control air flow (idle rpm)

Ford Pulse Width Idle Control Motor (Bypass Air Valve)


Depending on the % on time form the ECM the pulse width motor allows more or less air to bypass the throttle blades
ICM

Throttle Body
Intake