includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable. and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the Government..Judicial Power . ..

order. and over petitions for certiorari.Power of the Supreme Court 1) Exercise original jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors. (b) Legality of any tax. or toll. (2) Review. modify. ordinance. mandamus. proclamation. other public ministers and consuls. or affirm on appeal or certiorari. revise. or any penalty imposed in relation thereto. assessment. presidential decree. or regulation is in question. reverse. prohibition. (c) All cases in which the jurisdiction of any lower court is in issue. as the law or the Rules of Court may provide. law. final judgments and orders of lower courts in: (a) Validity of any treaty. impost. . quo warranto. international or executive agreement. instruction. and habeas corpus.

(d) All criminal cases in which the penalty imposed is reclusion perpetua or higher. practice. (3) Assign temporarily judges of lower courts to other stations as public interest may require. the admission to the practice of law. pleading. (6) Appoint all officials and employees of the Judiciary in accordance with the Civil Service Law. (e) All cases in which only an error or question of law is involved. . Such rules shall provide a simplified and inexpensive procedure for the speedy disposition of cases. or modify substantive rights. (5) Promulgate rules concerning the protection and enforcement of constitutional rights. (4) Order a change of venue or place of trial. and legal assistance to the underprivileged. increase. the integrated bar. and procedure in all courts. shall be uniform for all courts of the same grade. and shall not diminish.

.may sit en banc or in its discretion. . five. composed of a Chief Justice and fourteen Associate Justices.. or seven Members..Membership of the Supreme Court . in division of three. Any vacancy shall be filled within ninety days from the occurrence thereof.. .

. which shall be heard by the Supreme Court en banc. . proclamations. a treaty. international or executive agreement. b. orders. . or law. and other regulations. application. all other cases which under the Rules of Court are required to be heard en banc. ordinances..involving the constitutionality. or operation of presidential decrees.Scope of Review All cases involving the constitutionality of: a. instructions.

and (b) must have been for fifteen years or more.Requirements for Justices (1) Natural-born citizen of the Philippines (2) A Member of the Supreme Court must be at (a) least forty years of age. . a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines.

. . integrity. probity.. and independence.Common requirements: Member of the Judiciary must be a person of proven competence...judges of lower courts (a) he is a citizen of the Philippines (b) and a member of the Philippine Bar...

.Prohibited Office The Members of the Supreme Court and of other courts established by law shall not be designated to any agency performing quasi-judicial or administrative functions.

.Retirement until they reach the age of seventy years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office.

Suspect Arrest Discharge for Illegal Arrest No Probable Cause Custodial Investigation Arrest to Imprisonment Bail Inquest Preliminary Investigation Charge in Court Trial/Arraignment Writ of Habeas Corpus Acquittal Reversal of Conviction Pardon Judgment Conviction Appeal Imprisonment Release after Full Service Conviction Parole .

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