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Ethics- is a study of the character of human beings rests, as do all enquiries into human beings are to behave, on a particular

understanding of what a human being is.

- It is how individuals can become excellent or can evaluate excellence.

HUMAN BEHAVIOUR AS TELEOLOGICAL ACTIVITY Every art or applied science and every systematic investigation, and similarly every action and choice, seem to aim at some good; the good therefore, has been well defined at that at which all things aim (1094a)

EUDAIMONIA This final goal he identifies on the basis on the basis of an appeal to experience as eudaimonia, a word traditionally translated as happiness (1097)

THE FUNCTION (ERGON) The proper function of man, then, consists in an activity of the soul in conformity with a rational principle, or, at least, not without it (1098a).

THE DOCTRINE OF MEAN moral qualities.are destroyed by defect and by excess (35)


a mean defined by a rational principle, such as man of practical wisdom would use to determine it (1106b)

Range of Intellectual Skills 1.The moral person must be able to evaluate a particular situation, to recognize it for what it is and in relation to any actions which he or she might undertake to respond to it. 2.The moral person must have been able to work out through reasom some knowledge of the overall good as such.

3. The moral person must be able to understand the various goods appropriate to his or her situation and stage of life. 4. The moral person must be able to reason from the general notion of the good as such(Point 2) to a conclusion about the specific range of goods immediately to be achieved in the present situation.

5. Practical wisdom is the ability to organize and use this differential intellectual abilities and thus to select the right means for the attainment of the appropriate goals and to issue commands for action. 6. Almost as an afterthought, the notion of cleverness, the ability to perform those steps which are conducive to a goal we have set for ourselves and to attain that goal (169).

7. This form of reasoning can only take place in a systematic form of activity in which there is a shared sense of roles and actions recognized to be ordered according to their relative goodness, so that one does not have a bewildering array of competing goods.

THE PRACTICAL SYLLOGISM Major Premise: The good life for me, which is my overall goal, means that in situation X, virtue requires me to do Y (my education, my observation of those people famous for their virtue, and the habits I have acquired over time). Minor Premise: What I am faced with now is situation X( this is from the analytical skills I have acquired in experience and from education). Conclusion: Therefore virtue requires that in this situation I choose to do Y.


1.Excellent characters aim at the good and desire the good; the decision making is thus free from tension. 2.Strong characters aim at the good but desire the bad; their decision making is thus marked by conflict. 3.Weak characters aim at the good but desire the bad. 4.The worst characters aim at the bad and desire the bad.

SIGNIFICANCE/IMPACT 1.Aristotle stressed on the community as the basis for our sense of good life. 2.Practical observations and experiences (especially of role models)


1. Aristotle did not clarify the

human function and what is something uniquely about human function.

2. Some interpreters suggest that the main emphasis in the Ethics in not strictly on what we might consider ethics and more on success: 3. Aristotle did not gave his exact definition of practical wisdom.


Aristotles importance of practical experience makes sense to me in anchoring my moral values. 2. His concept of a team player with a team behavior can give us opportunity to evaluate our actions in a given situation and select the most appropriate choice. 3. Aristotles most important influence is to EDUCATE the people and produce EDUCATED CITIZENS.

CITIZENSHIP- Holding of public office and administration of justice.



PRINCIPLES OF DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICEbenefits should be conferred upon different citizens differently RECOMMENDATIONS 1.The greatest tension in any state is the mutual resentment between the rich and the poor. 2.Strong middle class keeps the state in balance and guards against corruption and oppression.

THREE BRANCHES OF CIVIC GOVERNMENT DELIBERATIVE- makes the major political decisions of the state. EXECUTIVE runs the day-to-day business of the state. JUDICIAL oversees legal affairs of the state.


1.City-state should be arranged to maximize the happiness of its citizen. 2.Should be located by the water. 3.Young citizens serve in the military, middle-aged citizens govern, older citizens take care of religious affairs, noncitizen laborers take care of farming and crafts. 4.Education is important to ensuring the well-being of the city.

SIGNIFICANCE/INFLUENCE: 1. Deep influence on political philosophy until today. 1.1 role of human nature in politics 1.2 relation of the individual to the state 1.3 place of morality in politics 1.4 theory of political justice 1.5 the rule of law 1.6 analysis and evaluation of constitutions 1.7 relevance of ideals to practical politics 1.8 the causes and cures of political change and revolution 1.9 the importance of a morally educated citizenry 2. Unifying a community 3. Distributive Justice 4. The Written Law

PROBLEMS/ISSUES: 1.Aristotle frequently compares the politician to a craftsman. 2.There is absence of individual freedom and the protection of a citizens private life from the public eye.

COMMENTS: 1.Aristotle is unconcerned that the rich have all the opportunity to achieve merit. 2.He endorse slavery and yet he opposes the enslavement of other Greeks.