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Dr Jill Hanson N509 J.Hanson@derby.ac.uk
To look at different types of qualitative analysis To look at thematic analysis in more depth To introduce you to descriptive statistics To enable you to choose the correct inferential statistical test
What is it?
It is the analysis of words or actions measured through
Interview transcripts Field notes (notes taken in the field being studied) Video Audio recordings Images Documents (reports, meeting minutes, e-mails)
What Is It’s Goal?
Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) is the range of processes and procedures whereby we move from the qualitative data that have been collected into some form of explanation, understanding or interpretation of the people and situations we are investigating. The process of QDA usually involves two things, writing and the identification of themes.
. In other cases it may be some form of précis or summary of the data.Writing Involves writing about the data and what you have found. though this usually contains some analytic ideas. Often what you write may be analytic ideas.
This enables researchers to retrieve and collect together all the text and other data that they have associated with some thematic idea .Coding into themes Looking for themes involves coding.
Sometimes I will be sat watching trash TV and thinking I should be out doing something rather than watching this rubbish. It's good they still there when I need them.Example “When you move into your own home. I become independent and made my own decisions. I read a lot but sometimes I am too tired and just want to veg out.” . There is no bustle of people around the house. I put the TV or some music so there‟s some background noise. I miss having someone to chat to when I get home. It's good to have some distance as when I was at home I was arguing a lot with my dad and that was what made me decide it was time to go. the silence makes me feel so alone. you're alone. But it's been good to move out of mum and dad‟s as it's not healthy to rely on them as they won't last forever.
. But you need to trick is to move towards explaining why things are as you have found them.Interpreting It is easy to write and code in ways that are nothing more than descriptive summaries of what participants have said or done.
Can be tricky to learn and no point unless your sample size is large . are copied. filing cabinets. to gather together materials that are examples of similar themes or analytic ideas. wallets etc. Computer based Many analysts now also use dedicated computer assisted qualitative data analysis (CAQDAS) packages. Manual methods Notes and interviews are transcribed and transcripts and images etc.Organising Researchers tend to approach this organisation in one of two ways. The researcher then uses folders. 2. 1.
the analysis. more thinking. more testing . If you are generating numbers then you should see the numbers only as pointers to more thinking and researching about where and why there are anomalies or exceptions.Aspects of QA that you should consider Are you interested in interpreting the data in terms of themes / concepts / ideas / interactions / processes? Then YOU have to do the thinking. Qualitative data usually cannot be reduced to numbers. There is no software that can actually do the thinking for you Data may be messy You need to give thought to efficient data management. If you ARE just trying to reduce the data to numbers. have you properly understood the reasons for doing qualitative research? Will the sample size and/or sampling method be telling you anything of value at all? (Many qualitative samples are small and not proper random samples). This may mean more data collection. You need to find out what literature there is around your research topics.
Approaches to analysing QD Action research Field Research Memory work Analytic InductionFramework analysis Mixed methods Biographical research Grounded theory Narrative analysis Ethnomethodology Matrix Analysis/Logical Analysis ConversationbAnalysis Phenomenography Comparative analysis Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) Phenomenology Discourse analysis Life History QCA Qualitative Comparative Analysis Ethnography Life-world analysis Symbolic interactionism .
Thematic Analysis We will only look at a simple Thematic Analysis which is likely to be appropriate for the majority of you given your experience and the nature of the data you will be collecting. See Braun & Clarke (2006) for extensive detail .
79) It differs from other analytic methods such as IPA and grounded theory because it does not require the researcher to subscribe to the implicit theoretical commitments of other approaches . analysing and reporting patterns (themes) within data” (p.Braun & Clarke (2006) “Thematic analysis is a method for identifying.
What is a theme? “A theme captures something important about the data in relation to the research question. and represents some level of patterned response or meaning within the data set” (Braun & Clarke. p. 2006. 82) Will be evidenced in a number of participants responses .
Focus? You can focus on: A rich description of themes emerging from the ENTIRE data set OR Provide a detailed account of one particular aspect (in relation to a particular question) .
Inductive versus theoretical thematic analysis Themes can be identified in Bottom up way (inductive) Top down way (theoretical and deductive) Inductive – themes are strongly linked to data itself. may not bear a strong relation to the actual questions asked Deductive – themes are driven by the researchers theoretical or analytic interest in the area Choice usually maps onto how and why you are coding the data Code for a specific research question (maps onto theoretical approach) Or specific research question can evolve through the coding process (maps onto the inductive approach) .
the development of the themes themselves involves interpretative work. If we imagine our data three-dimensionally as an uneven blob of jelly. a thematic analysis at the latent level goes beyond the semantic content of the data. but is already theorized . while the latent approach would seek to identify the features that gave it that particular form and meaning. for latent thematic analysis. assumptions.Semantic or Latent Themes Semantic approach. the themes are identified within the explicit or surface meanings of the data. and conceptualizations / and ideologies /that are theorized as shaping or informing the semantic content of the data. and the analysis that is produced is not just description. In contrast. the semantic approach would seek to describe the surface of the jelly. and starts to identify or examine the underlying ideas. its form and meaning. and the analyst is not looking for anything beyond what a participant has said or what has been written. Thus.
7. 3. 6.How to conduct and write up Thematic Analysis 1. 5. Familiarise yourself with your data Generate initial codes Search for themes Review themes Define and name themes Produce report . 2. Make sure you explicitly state the theoretical position you are taking in your write up. 4.
define and name themes On going analysis to refine the specifics of each theme. generating a thematic „map‟ of the analysis. noting down initial ideas. producing a scholarly report of the analysis . Produce report The final opportunity for analysis. gathering all data relevant to each potential theme. compelling extract examples. generate initial codes Coding interesting features of the data in a systematic fashion across the entire data set. and the overall story the analysis tells. final analysis of selected extracts. relating back of the analysis to the research question and literature. search for themes Collating codes into potential themes.Phase familiarise yourself with the data Description of process Transcribing data (if necessary). collating data relevant to each code. Selection of vivid. review themes Checking if the themes work in relation to the coded extracts (Level 1) and the entire data set (Level 2). reading and re-reading the data. generating clear definitions and names for each theme.
Pitfalls 1. 4. themes are not internally coherent/consistent Mismatch between data and claims made – claims are not supported by data and report does not consider alternative interpretations of data . 3. there is too much overlap. Failure to actually analyse the data – you must include analytic narrative as well as extracts and these must be directly relevant to your objective Using the data collection questions as the themes (here no analysis has been done) Weak or unconvincing analysis – themes do not work. 2.
Quantitative Analysis: NUMBERS When? If you have used structured interviews or questionnaires Your data takes the form of numbers. ranks or categorical responses .
YOU MUST CONDUCT THESE AT MASTERS LEVEL . NOT ENOUGH AT MASTERS LEVEL 2. Inferential statistics Use these to confirm differences between groups or relationships between variables. Descriptive statistics – used to describe what your data looks like.What is Quantitative Analysis 1.
1st.g.g. weight. gender.Types of Variables/Data Forms • Nominal/categorical/group Where your data takes the form of groups – you have asked the respondent to check a box e. age in specific years. job type Ratio/Interval/Scale/numeric Where your data is a number e.g. 3rd . height Ordinal/ranked Where you have asked respondents to rank in order of preference e. Likert scale ratings. 2nd.
ways to describe data Measures of central tendency Mean. mode. skewness. median SD. variance. kurtosis Measures of dispersion You should always report both measures but careful to choose the statistic that is correct for YOUR form of data .
Interquartile range --- Skew Peaked . median Range.Descriptive Statistics Measure for numeric data Non-mean based measure Center Spread Mean Variance (standard deviation) Skewness Kurtosis Mode.
. work out the average….Mean xi i 1 n n X AAARRRGGGGHHHH! All that says is add up all the scores in the sample and divide by the number of cases! i.e.
What does that mean? . i 1 n 2 ( xi ) n i 1 n 2 Again. Standard Deviation ( xi ) 2 n .Variance. ignore the silly sum. the further away your scores are from the mean. The bigger the standard deviation. The standard deviation is a sum which calculates that. Variance means looking at the way the scores in your sample vary around the mean.
The normal curve for numeric data 34% 34% 47% 49% 47% 49% .
A z score distribution has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1 .The z-score or the “standardized score” z x x x A calculation you perform when you want your scores to be normalised and put into a format where they can be compared to scores that have been calculated using different scales.
Skewness Symmetrical distribution Frequency IQ SAT “No skew” “Zero skew” Symmetrical Value .
Skewness Asymmetrical distribution Frequency “Negative skew” “Left skew” Value .
Skewness (Asymmetrical distribution) Frequency “Positive skew” “Right skew” Value .
Kurtosis k>3 Frequency leptokurtic k=3 mesokurtic k<3 platykurtic Value .
How do you present descriptive statistics? Tables Graphs: Line Histogram Bar Scatterplots Box plots Make sure you use tables and graphs only to ILLUSTRATE WHAT YOU HAVE WRITTEN Always give them a Table or Figure number and a title .
Three words about pie charts: don’t use them .
So. what’s wrong with them Hard to get a comparison among groups the eye is very bad in judging relative size of circle slices .
The worst graph ever published .
2. ALWAYS give the graph or table a clear title and table or figure number Make sure the axes in graphs are clearly labelled Don‟t make them over complicated Never use them as analyses in their own right.Conventions for using graphs and tables 1. 4. 3. They are there to illustrate what you say in your write up only. .
Inferential statistics Descriptive statistics and the graphs you can draw using them will often suggest that there are meaningful differences or relationships in your data. At UG and PG level it is not enough to just use descriptive statistics . Inferential tests are used to confirm that what you think you see is real. However. how can you tell if those differences are real or if the relationship really exists? Perhaps it is just an artefact. or not.
What can you do with inferential statistics? Identify significant relationships between variables (e.g. compare males and females on commitment…) Identify groups of similar cases (e.g.g. see if age is related to weight) Compare groups for significant differences (e. can you cluster people based on their personality and IQ?) Identify groups of similar variables (e.g. do the items in a scale only represent one factor or do they actually represent two or three?) .
Deciding which test to use 1.g. 2. 3. numeric data) Non-parametric tests do not. 4. • How is your objective worded? What kind of data have you collected? How many variables do you have? How many samples do you have? Does your data meet the test requirements? Parametric tests require your data to meet certain requirements (e. 5. (There is always a nonparametric equivalent) • . normally distributed.
Cramer‟s V .Identifying Significant Relationships Type of Data Statistic Numeric/Scale/Continuous (and normally distributed) Pearson‟s Correlation Ordinal / Ranked (or nonnormal continuous) Spearman‟s Rho Categorical/nominal/grouped Phi.
Regression An extension of correlation where you work out the extent to which one or more variables can predict changes in another variable Not too difficult if you use the right book! .
Comparing Groups for Differences T-tests (where you have parametric data. 1 sample. or two groups) ANOVA (where you have parametric data and you want to compare more than 2 groups) Non-parametric equivalents of the above (when your data does not meet requirements) Mann-whitney/wilcoxon/kruskal-willis/friedman‟s ANOVA Chi-square (for categorical data) See your SPSS guide for more information .
Identifying similar cases/variables Similar cases – cluster analysis Similar variables – Factor analysis .
Most likely for you? Correlations Maybe regression if you are model testing T-tests or ANOVA (to compare groups on a numeric/scale/interval variable e.g. do more men than women smoke?) Good news is that these are all easy to run using SPSS and easy to interpret using Pallant‟s fab book! .g. do females have a higher verbal IQ than men?) Chi square (to compare groups on a nominal/categorical variable e.