CONTENTS
• • • • • • • MULTIPLE ACCESS CDMA SPECTRUM CDMA CODES CDMA CHANNELS CDMA CALL PROCESSING CDMA PERFOMANCE INDICATORS HARD HANDOFF

MULTIPLE ACCESS

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33 (19. The system parameters presented in this discussion are based on a maximum bite rate of 9. This provides a measure of ``spreading'' in the system.4 kbps (max). resulting in a Processing Gain of 85. Process gain is defined as the ratio of the Chip Rate (Rc) to the information bit rate (Rb). Bit Rate (Rb): The bit rate is base band user information (i. In CDMA.4 kbps per IS95 For CDMA (IS95A/B): Ex. Rb = 14.2288 * 10 ^ 6 cps (chips per second).3 dB).2288 Mcps. the chip rate is 1. voice is digitized at different rates depending on the speech activity level.Rc = 1. user voice/data) rate.PROCESSING GAIN Processing Gain is a term common to all direct sequence spread spectrum systems.6 kbps and 14. IS95.e. For CDMA. Processing Gain = Rc / Rb Chip Rate (Rc): The Chip Rate is the rate at which the PN sequence is generated. .

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SOFT CAPACITY IN CDMA
YOU CAN ALWAYS ADD JUST ONE MORE CALLER TO A CDMA CHANNEL AT THE COST OF QUALITY. CDMA SYSTEM CAPACITY IS A COMPROMISE BETWEEN THE NUMBER OF USERS AND QUALITY OF SERVICE.

QUALITY TOTAL BANDWIDTH
CDMA USERS

USER TRAFFIC

QUALITY IS ANALOGOUS TO PROCESSING GAIN

CDMA SPECTRUM

CDMA Cellular Spectrum
824 MHz A’’ A 835 MHz B 845 MHz A’ 849 MHz B’

Reverse link

825 MHz

846.5 MHz

869 MHz A’’ A

880 MHz B

890 MHz A’

894 MHz B’

Forward link

870 MHz

891.5 MHz

68 MHz .23MHz 45 MHz Frequency 881.CDMA UP LINK DOWN LINK BAND SEPERATION Reverse CDMA Channel Forward CDMA Channel 1.68 MHz 1.23MHz CDMA Channel Frequency 836.

CDMA ADJACENT CHANNELS .

Spreading : What We Do. We Can Undo .

10110010) * = U1 = 0110010101001000 C1 ( 100110….DSSS Spreading/ Despreading C1*C1 = 1. U2*C2*C2 = U2 U2C2 U3C3 U4C4 UnCn U3C3*C1 = 0. Cn*Cn = 1 BUT C1*C2 = 0…C1*Cn = 0 U1C1 ( 100110………………………00000) C1 ( 100110…. U4C4*C4 = U4 UnCn*C1 = 0. U3C3*C3 = U3 U4C4*C1 = 0.10110010) U1 = 0110010101001000 * = U1C1 ( 100110………………………0000) U2C2*C1 = 0. C2*C2 = 1…. UnCn*Cn = Un .

CDMA CODES .

CODES IN CDMA .

Invert: diagonally 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 .WALSH CODES-Orthogonal Sequences • Definition: Orthogonal functions have zero correlation. Two binary sequences are orthogonal if the process of “XORing” them results in an equal number of 1’s and 0’s. Example: 0000 (XOR) 0101 -----0101 • Generation Sequence: .Seed .Repeat: right & below .

.Walsh Codes 0000000000011111111122222222223333333333444444444455555555556666 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 ………6 6 6 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 …….. 0 1 2 3 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 .

ORTHOGONALITY OF WALSH CODES .

Orthogonal Spreading 1 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 Walsh Function #59 1001100101100110011001101001100101100110100110011001100101100110 Pattern to be Transmitted .

Orthogonal Spreading +1 -1 User Data 1 0 0 1 1 Orthogonal Sequence 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 1001 0110 1001 Tx Data 1 0 0 1 +1 -1 .

Decoding Using a Correct Code Rx Data Correct Function 1001 0110 1111 1 +1 0110 0110 0000 0 0110 0110 0000 0 1001 0110 1111 1 1001 0110 1111 1 -1 .

Decoding Using a Incorrect Code Rx Data Incorrect Function 1001 0101 1100 ? 0110 0101 0011 ? 0110 0101 0011 ? 1001 0101 1100 ? 1001 0101 1100 ? .

Example: Spreading +1 -1 Spread Waveform Representation of User B’s signal +1 -1 +1 -1 Analog Signal Formed by the Summation of the Three Spread Signals +1 Spread Waveform Representation of User C’s signal C=11 Walsh Code for C = 0000 B=10 Walsh Code for B = 0011 Spread Waveform Representation of User A’s signal A=00 Walsh Code for A = 0101 -3 .

Despreading +1 Received Composite Signal -3 +1 -1 +3 Product Walsh Code for User A = 0101 -1 Average=(5-1)/4=1 “0” Average=(5-1)/4=1 “0” .

PN Code Generation .

PN Code Generation .

Masking .

Lookup Table for PN Offsets Mask Offset (in chips) Transmitted Sequence 001 010 011 7 6 4 1001011 0010111 1011100 100 101 110 111 5 1 3 2 0101110 1100101 0111001 1110010 .

Quadrature Spreading Offset I PN Code 1011000010110 Symbols Spread by Walsh Chips 0110111001011 0110111001011 I 1101111011101 To Baseband Filter Q 0110111001011 0010100100000 0100011101011 Offset Q PN Code .

Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Bipolar PSK 1 Digital Signal 0 1 Quadrature PSK 10 00 11 -sinwct (logic 0) sinwct (logic 1) 01 .

Orthogonal QPSK tb I-Channel Input Data b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 tb Q-Channel Input Data a0 a1 a2 a3 .

QPSK MODULATION USING PN-SHORT CODE .

Cell Identification #1 #2 #3 Offset in increments of 64 chips 100101001100111010111001010100 100101001100111010111001010100 1001010011001110101110010 • Quick and Easy Cell Acquisition • Reuse Walsh Codes .PN Offset .

FORWARD & REVERSE LINK CODES .

Coherent / Non-Coherent Detection .

CDMA CHANNELS .

The CDMA Physical Layer .

As defined in IS95. These Walsh sequences are commonly referred to as CDMA code channels.Physical Channel Physical channels are described in terms of a wideband RF channel and code sequence. each RF channel is 1. .2288 MHz wide. there are 64 Walsh sequences (W0 through W63) available for use on the forward link. For each RF channel.

Logical Channel The physical channel that carry specific types of information are known as logical channels. Logical channels in CDMA are divided into two categories: Traffic Channels and Control Channels. For the Reverse Link there is one type Signaling Channel and one Traffic Channel per user. It is important to note that signals on the forward link are identified by Walsh codes. signals on the reverse link are identified by Long Codes. however. For the forward link there are three types of Control/Signaling channels and one Traffic Channel (per user). .

Low Pass Filtering the resulting wide band signal. Modulating the information signal with the spreading PN sequence 2. 2. Integrating the despread signal over a bit time to recover the information signal .Transmit and Receive Processes of Spread Spectrum Transmitting a spread spectrum signal involves: 1. 3. Demodulating with the signal with the known spreading sequence. Demodulating the signal with the RF carrier. Modulating the resulting signal with the desired carrier wave 3. Transmitting the resulting RF signal. and 4. Receiving a spread spectrum signal involves: 1. Band Pass Filtering the output 4.

CDMA IS-95 CHANNELS • Four RF .

AIR INTERFACE Control Channels Downlink Uplink Pilot Sync Paging Access .

AIR INTERFACE TRAFFIC CHANNELS SPEECH or DATA ASSOCIATED SIGNALLING 1 1/2 1/4 1/8 Blank & Burst Dim & Burst Power Control .

Information on this channel commands the mobile unit to adjust its transmitted power + 1 dB every 1/16 of a speech frame (800 times per second). and •Up to 55 Traffic Channels Power Control SubChannel A Power Control SubChannel is continuously transmitted on the forward traffic channel as part of the traffic frame. •Up to seven Paging Channels.Forward Link (Downlink) The logical channels for the Forward Link must provide identification of the Base station. paging of mobile units in the area. timing and synchronization of the transmissions between the base station and mobile station. •Up to one Sync Channel. . and the voice/data transmission from the base station to the mobile unit. The forward link is comprised of: •The Pilot Channel.

. These channels share the same CDMA center frequency on the reverse link (a different frequency is used for forward link transmissions). The reverse link capability of a given base station is limited by the number of traffic channels assigned (up to 55) and up to seven (7) access channels (correlating to a maximum of 7 paging channels).. . it only borrows it for a short amount of time. Note that a mobile does not ``tie up'' an access channel. The total number of channels( max 55) is determined by base station activity. The reverse link is composed of: •Access Channels and •Traffic Channels.Reverse Link (Uplink) The logical channel requirements of the reverse link must provide for the identification and access request by the mobile unit to the base stations in the area and the voice/data transmission from the mobile unit to the base station.

. When a mobile is to receive a call it will receive a ``page'' from the base station. It provides a phase reference for coherent demodulation and provides a means for signal strength comparisons between base stations. It consists of the un-modulated spreading sequences (PN short codes).84 s) referred to as maximum slot cycles. Paging Channel The Paging Channel is used for transmission of control information to the mobile. The base station can limit the maximum slot cycle used by the mobile. which is used to determine when to handoff. The sync channel is always transmitted on Walsh 32. The 80 ms slots are grouped into cycles of 2048 slots (cycle duration 163. Up to seven (7) channels may be configured for paging depending on the expected demand. Page channel messaging to each user takes place in an 80 ms ``slot''. The Pilot signal is transmitted continuously on Walsh 0 by each CDMA base station at the transmitter (cell/sector) level. Sync Channel The Synchronization Channel is an encoded. interleaved and modulated spread spectrum signal that is used with the Pilot Channel to acquire initial system time and synchronization.Pilot and Sync and Paging Channels Pilot Channel The Pilot Channel allows a mobile station to acquire the timing of the Forward Traffic Channel user information.

The forward traffic channel message consists of user voice (or data). on the down link. Each Access Channel is identified by a distinct ``Access Channel Long PN Code ''. A Walsh code is assigned by the base station for each Traffic Channel in use. Each user has a dedicated TCH. and error correction bits. Traffic Channel The Traffic Channel carries all the calls (voice or data signal) from a given base station to all the mobile units active in the coverage area or vice versa. and corresponding Walsh code. This channel is also used when responding to a ``page''. . When a mobile is to place a call it uses the ``access'' channel to inform the base station. The Traffic Channel for the reverse link is identical to the forward link Traffic Channel in function and structure. power control data.Access and Traffic Channels Access Channel The Access Channel is used for the transmission of control information to the base station. Each traffic channel is identified by a ``User Long PN Code'' which is unique to each CDMA user. The traffic channel may also carry signaling information with or in place of user voice (or data). An Access Channel is selected randomly by the mobile unit from the total number of access channels available from the serving cell/sector. The message is transmitted as a series of traffic frames.

CDMA Forward Link Variable Low Bit Rate Speech Coding Transmit Path in Base Station Variable Low Bit Rate Speech Decoding Convolution encoding Bit Interleaving Channel Decoding Receive path in Mobile Bit Deinterleaving Encryption: Long Code Scrambling Walsh Function Modulation Decryption: Long Code Descrambling Walsh Function Demodulation Quadrature Spreading and Multiplexing Quadrature Despreading Quadrature Carrier Modulation RF Channel Quadrature Carrier Demodulation .

INTERLEAVING IN FEC C C .

CDMA Reverse Link Variable Low Bit Rate Speech Coding Variable Low Bit Rate Speech Decoding Concolution Encoding Channel Decoding Transmit Path in Mobile Bit Interleaving Bit Deinterleaving Receive path in Base Station 64ary Orthogonal Walsh Symbol Modulation 64ary Orthogonal Walsh Symbol Demodulation Encryption: Long Code Spreading Decryption: Long Code Despreading Quadrature Spreading Demultiplexing and Quadrature Despreading Quadrature Carrier Modulation RF Channel Quadrature Carrier Demodulation .

Forward Link Code Channels .

Pilot channels are kept at 4-6 dB higher then rest of the channels .2288 Mcps BB Q Pilot PN sequence 1. repeated 75 times a second.67 ms frame period.2288 Mcps Walsh W0 BB To QPSK Modulator All 0’s 1.Pilot Channel I Pilot PN sequence 1.2288 Mcps   26.

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2288 Mcps S O M 31 Information Bits 32 bits / 26. SOM (Start Of Message) .2 Ksps BB To QPSK Modulator 2.Sync Channel Frames I Pilot PN sequence 1.4 Ksps 19.2288 Mcps 19.2 Ksps BB Q Pilot PN sequence 1.2 Kbps Rate=1/2.2288 Mcps Sync Channel Message Convolutional Encoder 1.67 ms   Convolutional encoder not zeroed out after each frame No CRC bits at frame level. Walsh W32 Symbol Repetition Block Interleaver 1.

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2288 Mcps Long Code Decimator Q Pilot PN 1.2288 Mcps Symbol Repetition 9.Paging Channel Paging Channel Message Convolutional Encoder 4.6 Kbps Rate=1/2.2 Ksps Block Interleaver 19.6/ 19.2 Ksps Walsh W1-7 BB 1.2288 Mcps .8/ 9.2288 Mcps To QPSK Modulator Long-code Mask for Paging Channel 64:1 BB Long Code Generator 1. I Pilot PN 1.2 Ksps 19.

2288 Mcps To QPSK Modulator BB Long-code Mask Long Code Generator 1.2288 Mcps 64:1 Decimator Decimator Q Pilot PN 1. Power Control Bits (800bps) Symbol Repetition Walsh Wn I Pilot PN 1.Forward Traffic Channel Convolutional Encoder Rate=1/2.2288 Mcps BB Block Interleaver Mux 19.2288 Mcps .2 Ksps 24:1 1.

Reverse Link Code Channels .

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2288 Mcps I Pilot PN 1.8 Ksps Block Interleaver 64-ary Orthogonal Modulator 1.2288 Mcps 20 ms 88 • • Information Bits 8 Tail Bits Tail Bits Zero Convolutional Encoder. No CRC Bits At Frame Level Preamble Comprised of Zero Filled Frames .2288 Mcps BB To QPSK Modulator Long-code Mask Long Code Generator 1.Access Channel Frames Access Channel Message Convolutional Encoder 4.6 Kbps Rate=1/3.8/ 9. K=9 14.4 Ksps Symbol Repetition 28.2288 Mcps BB Q Pilot PN 1.

8 Ksps Data Burst Randomizer 1.2288 Mcps To QPSK Modulator BB 1.Reverse Traffic Channel Convolutional Encoder RS1/ RS2 Rate=1/3.8 Ksps I Pilot PN 1.8 Ksps Block Interleaver 28.2288 Mcps .2288 Mcps Long-code Mask Long Code Generator Q Pilot PN 1.2288 Mcps BB 64-ary Orthogonal Modulator 4. K=9 Symbol Repetition 28.

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each 64 bits long.2288 Mbps (or Mcps) giving a period of 26. PN Short Code The Short Code is a PN sequence that is 2 ^ 15 bits (chips) in length. For this reason they are also referred to as either Walsh Channels or TCH. This code is used for final spreading of the signal and is transmitted as a reference known as the ``Pilot Sequence'' by the base station. Both the base station and the mobile unit have knowledge of this sequence at any given instant in time based on a specified private ``long code mask'' that is exchanged. known as Walsh Codes. Walsh Codes CDMA defines a group of 64 orthogonal sequences. All base stations and mobile users have knowledge of all Walsh codes. The long code is used to encrypt user information.2288 Mbps (or Mcps) giving it a period (time before the sequence repeats) of approximately 41. All base stations use the same short code. This code is generated at 1.4 days. Base stations are differentiated from one another by transmitting the PN short code at different ``offsets'' in absolute.67 ms.2288 Mbps (Mcps) with a period of approximately 52 µs. . These codes are generated at 1. It is generated at a rate of 1. These are used to identify users on the forward link.Summary of Codes PN Long Code The Long Code is a PN sequence that is 2^42 1 bits (chips) long. These sequences are also referred to as Wash Functions.

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