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Types of Antenna
Radiation Mechanism
Physical concept of Radiation in single wire, two wire and dipole


Antenna or Aerial :

- is a transducer that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves - converts the voltage and current into the electromagnetic radiation and vice-versa - is a transitional structure between free-space and a guiding structure - The American Heritage Dictionary: A metallic apparatus for sending and receiving electromagnetic waves. - Websters Dictionary: A usually metallic device (as a rod or wire) for radiating or receiving radio waves

What is an Antenna? An antenna is a device for radiating and receiving radio waves. The antenna is the transitional structure between free-space and a guiding device.

Wire antennas Aperture antennas

Microstrip antennas
Array antennas Reflector antennas

Lens antennas

Wire antennas
seen virtually everywhere- on automobile, building, ships, aircraft, and so on. Shapes of wire antennas: straight wire (dipole), loop (circular), and helix, Loop antenna may take the shape of a rectangle , ellipse or any other shape configuration

Aperture antennas derived from waveguide technology (circular, rectangular)
Can transfer high power (magnetrons, klystrons) Utilization of higher frequencies
Applications: aircraft, and spacecraft

EM wave
Power absorbed: P [watt]

Effective aperture: A[m2]

Note: The aperture concept is applicable also to wired antennas. For instance, the max effective aperture of linear /2 wavelength dipole antenna is 2/8

Microstrip antenna
consist of metallic patch on a grounded substrate Examples: rectangular and circular shape Applications: aircraft, spacecraft, satellite, missiles, cars etc


a collection of simple antennas

- gives desire d radiation characteristics - The arrangement of the array may be such that the radiation from the

Array antennas

elements adds up to give a radiation maximum in a particular direction or directions, minimum in others, or otherwise as desired - Examples: yagi-uda array, aperture array, microstrip patch array, slotted waveguide array

Reflector antennas
- used in order to transmit and receive signals that had to travel

millions of miles - A very common reflector antenna parabolic reflector


How is Radiation Accomplished?
Principle of radiation

When electric charges undergo acceleration or deceleration, electromagnetic radiation will be produced. Hence it is the motion of charges (i.e., currents) that is the source of radiation basic equation of radiation IL = Qv Where Itime varying current Qcharge Llength of current element vtime change of velocity Radiation Mechanism in a) Single wire, b) Two wire and c) Dipole

Radiation Mechanism
Single wire:
Conducting wires are characterized by the motion of electric charges and the creation of current ow. Assume that an electric volume charge density, qv (coulombs/m3), is distributed uniformly in a circular wire of cross-sectional area A and volume V qv - volume charge density A- cross-sectional area V-Volume

Radiation Mechanism
Single wire:

Instead of examining all three current densities, we will primarily

concentrate on the very thin wire.

The conclusions apply to all three. If the current is time varying.

Radiation Mechanism
Thin wire

Radiation Mechanism
Single wire:

Radiation Mechanism
Two-Wires: Applying a voltage across the two-conductor transmission line creates an electric eld between the conductors. The movement of the charges creates a current that in turn creates a magnetic eld intensity. The creation of time-varying electric and magnetic elds between the conductors forms electromagnetic waves which travel along the transmission line.

Radiation Mechanism
Two-Wires: The electromagnetic waves enter the antenna and have associated with them electric charges and corresponding currents. If we remove part of the antenna structure, free-space waves can be formed by connecting the open ends of the electric lines

Radiation Mechanism
Two-Wires: If the initial electric disturbance by the source is of a short duration, the created electromagnetic waves travel inside the transmission line, then into the antenna, and nally are radiated as free-space waves, even if the electric source has ceased to exist.
If the electric disturbance is of a continuous nature, electromagnetic waves exist continuously and follow in their travel behind the others. However, when the waves are radiated, they form closed loops and there are no charges to sustain their existence. Electric charges are required to excite the elds but are not needed to sustain them and may exist in their absence.

Radiation Mechanism
Dipole Antenna: A radio antenna that can be made of a simple wire, with a centre-fed driven element
Consist of two metal conductors of rod or wire, oriented parallel and

collinear with each other (in line with each other), with a small space between them.

Consider the example of a small dipole antenna where the

time of travel is negligible

Radiation Mechanism
Formation and detachment of electric field line for short Dipole Antenna


VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)

The intensity of the standing wave is referred to as the "Voltage Standing Wave Ratio", or VSWR

WAVE" is an indication of an imperfect condition, with part of the power meant for radiation being returned because of a mismatch. If there is no mismatch with only a forward traveling wave, then there is no standing wave; i.e., the voltage at any point on the line is the same as it is everywhere else.

VSWR Max Min

Red Curve: Standing wave on line with open circuit at left end (antenna terminals) [This is very bad: no power transferred past end of line]

Load Impedance = Reflection Coefficient = 1 VSWR = Mismatch Loss = dB Return Loss = 0 dB

Blue Curve: Standing wave on 50-ohm line into short monopole antenna [This is not too good; power into load or antenna is down 4.5 dB from that available traveling down line] Load Impedance = 20 j80 ohms Reflection Coefficient = 0.3805 j0.7080 Absolute Value of Reflection Coefficient = 0.8038 VSWR = 9.2 Mismatch Loss = - 4.5 dB Return Loss = -1.9 dB

Green Curve: Standing wave on 50-ohm line with matched 50-ohm load at end [This is perfect; no standing wave; all power goes into antenna/load] Load Impedance = 50 ohms Reflection Coefficient = 0 VSWR = 1 Mismatch Loss = 0 dB Return Loss = dB

VSWR = Emax/Emin =(Efrd + Eref)/( Efrd - Eref)

Where: Emax = maximum voltage on the standing wave Emin = minimum voltage on the standing wave Efrd = incident voltage wave amplitude Eref = reflected voltage wave amplitude

VSWR =(1 + )/(1 - )

Where: is the reflection coefficient of the antenna (absolute value of voltage reflection)