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Presented to: Bushra Khalid Lecturer Department of Environmental Sciences International Islamic University, Islamabad




sensing uses various instruments to obtain information about an object systems provide a repetitive and consistent view of Earth


Flood disaster management

Traffic monitoring and management

Highway designing


Solid waste managem-ent

Forestry Waste water manage-ment

Air pollution studies

Estimating energy demand

Urban growth & land cover

Transportation is the flow of people and goods between geographically separated locations. Airborne and satellite platforms offer the potential: to obtain wide spatial coverage to monitor regional spatial transportation flow conditions


Road designing depends on various factors: socio-economic criteria, demographic analysis, landuse / landcover pattern, topography, etc. location of a line is the most important criteria in terms of Geo-referenced Physiographic configuration

Geoinformation provide vital information regarding; vulnerable land units for geotechnical adjustment social adaptations along the Highway route


sensing data can help in; Identification of garbage dumping sites Monitoring the changes in land use Taking immediate action for sanitation and maintenance of hotspots Allowing municipal authorities to manage the waste especially in hotspots.

Automated mapping can facilitate to manage the right ways for waste water pipelines. Remote Sensing can help; to produce reliable and efficient land cover maps to build a waste treatment plant at a best suitable location. to compute and map incidence for epidemiologists to study the temporal and spatial distributions of disease or arthropod vectors. to calculate social, urban, or demographic parameters relevant to epidemiologic studies


use of remote sensing for demographic studies allows urban growth monitoring, in qualitative and quantitative terms, at low cost and with regular updating. Remote sensing technique is very useful in identification, classification and mapping of the land use units like: Forest, Grazing or Range Land, Cultivated Land, Waste Land, Rocky waste, Cropped Land, Gullied Land, Plantation, Water bodies (Rivers, Lake/Ponds) Fallow Land,


sensing help; To estimate the utilization rate of various form energy To estimate solar photovoltaic energy potential To find out if renewable energy recourses are preferable for the particular site in a city

Remote sensing help to carry out atmospheric studies; air pollutant measurements, pollutant dispersion modelling; air quality assessment, particulate matter concentrations aerosol optical thickness (AOT); tropospheric ozone concentration as well as stratospheric ozone layer depletion Satellites, through its unique synoptic spatial capabilities, could contribute to the comparison of urban air quality information at regional, continental and international levels.


technology aids foresters in the acquisition of the data that is necessary to further research, manage, and recover present and future conditions of the global forests.

Remote sensing can help to monitor weather parameter through sophisticated air borne and ground based systems. The remote sensing imagery is used to monitor; moisture in the atmosphere, cloud cover, wind patterns, temperature, cyclonic activity in the oceans, ocean currents, flood disaster monitoring etc.


sensing is helping the floodplain managers to create accurate and current floodplain maps
maps are the key to better floodplain management.


Infrared aerial photographs showing flooding and its after effects (a) scale 1:9000 (b) june 30th (c) july 22nd (d) august 11th


satellites (Navigation Satellite) Meteosat (Weather Satellite) Cospas-Sarsat (Search and Rescue Satellite) Radarsat


Wetlands contribute to a healthy environment

regulators feeding, breeding, drinking areas for wildlife stopping place and refuge for waterfowl species diversity recreation tourism purposes

At federal level in United States, four principal agencies are involved with wetland identification and delineation: Environmental Protection Agency(Concern with water quality) Army Corps of Engineers(Concern with navigable water issues related to wetlands) Natural Resources Conservation Service(Concern with Identifying and mapping wetlands) Fish and Wildlife Service(concern with use of wetlands for wildlife habitat)

Color infrared photography: Preferred film type for wetlands image interpretation. Provides interpreters with a high level of contrast in image tone and color between wetland and non-wetland environments, moist soil spectral reflectance patterns contrast more distinctively with less moist soils on color infrared film


multiband image types can also be used, but should include at least one visible band and one near infrared band.

Useful for wetland boundary extraction/delineation

Useful for wetland vegetation & open water features

Various combinations of spectral bands used to identify wetland components

Useful for qualitative turbidity delineation


federal level, U.S Fish and Wildlife Service is responsible for a National Wetland Inventory (NWI) that provides current geospatially referenced information on: Status Extent Characteristics functions of wetland and related aquatic habitats

To promote the understanding and conservation of wetland, riparian, deepwater, and related aquatic habitats


Strategic updating of maps in areas of United States

Analyzing changes and trends to wetlands and other aquatic habitats Analyzing and disseminating resource information to improve identification of threats and risks to important wetlands and aquatic habitats



Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

Niger River in Mali

Fortescue Marshes in Western Australia


Wildlife refers to animals that live in: wild, undomesticated state.

It is concerned with the interactions between wildlife and their environment Two aspects of wildlife ecology for which visual image interpretation can provide useful information are; Wildlife habitat mapping Wildlife censusing


interpretation techniques for: mapping land cover, soils, forests, Wetlands water resources are applicable to wildlife habitat analysis


visual observations involve attempting to count the number of individuals of a species aerial photography has been the best method of accurately censusing wildlife populations



photographs provide a permanent

record Prolonged study of photographs may reveal information that could not have been otherwise understood Transparent grid overlays are often used for counting individual animals on aerial images, when large numbers are present.

Large group of snow geese on water (scale 1:1000)

large group of beluga whales northern Canada (a)1:2400 (b) 1:800