Music Therapy and Children

Kathryn M. Medina DLSU – Dasmarinas SPED 109

Objectives

To Identify Children Served by Music Therapy To Identify Uses of Music Therapy with Children in Medical and Educational Settings in the USA

Children Who Receive Music Therapy
 


    

Premature Infants Developmental Disabilities Learning Disabilities Behavior Disorders Communication Disorders Sensory Impairment Physical and Health Impairments Abused Children

Work Settings Demonstrating Growth in Employment for Music Therapists In the USA (2003)

    

Self Employment or Private Practice (Includes Services to Children) School (K - 12) Early Childhood Intervention Child and Adolescent Treatment Centers

Music Therapy Use of music by a trained music therapist to: restore physical maintain improve mental health .

.Role of Music Therapy in the Cycle of Illness Music therapy promotes coping skills and diminishes psychological symptoms to client ability.

Hans Selye (1956) Stress Distress Disease Disorder Disability .Cycle of Illness .

1.1999) 92 Studies 232 Variables . p.Clinical Research in Music Therapy (Standley.53) Music condition sometimes more than 3 standard deviations greater in effect than the control condition (Standley. 9)    . 2000.Effect Size ( r=3. 2000)  Results of a meta-analysis of clinical studies in music therapy in English (l980 . 28 to .

n = 30) (Standley. p.40. 15)   . n = 16) has a greater effect than recorded music Preferred music has the greatest effect (ES = 1.Music Effects  Live music by trained music therapist (ES = 1. 2000.13.

.

48. . 9) . n = 34)  (Standley. 2000. n = 26) respond to music with slightly greater effect than do adults (ES = .Research in Music Therapy with Children  Children & adolescents (ES = .87. p.95. n = 158) The smallest effects for music were with newborns (ES.

Music Therapy Approaches  Improvisational – Music Stimulation & Enrichment Medical – Medical Objectives Educational – Skill Development: in Nonmusic Domains   .

Improvisational Model Paul Nordoff & Clive Robbins .

Music Therapy Environments  Medical  Educational .

Medical Music Therapy Newborns & Pediatrics Jayne M.D Florida State University . Standley. Ph.

Medical Music Therapy Hospitalized Newborns  Treatment by Physician Referral Established Music Therapy Practices and Hospital Protocol Observed Clinical Effects   .

Research in Music with Premature Infants Hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) 11 studies 21 variables Music generally has a positive and significant effect in NICU: initial results were inconsistent (Standley. p. 19) . 2000.

tracking & social reciprocity) .Music Therapy Objectives Hospitalized Newborns      Pacification for Growth & Development Enhanced Respiration (Reduced Oxygen Support) Non-Nutritive Sucking (Promotes Feeding) Parent Training & Counseling Promotion of Development (awareness.

2003.Music Therapy Intervention I Sustained music. 76-77) . is provided to individual infants to: Facilitate growth. development. p. and learning Promote enhanced respiratory strength and reduction of stress (Standley. live or recorded.

p.79-89) .Music Therapy Intervention II Music to reinforce non-nutritive and nutritive sucking endurance and effectiveness (Standley. 2003.

p. 89-94) . visual and vestibular stimulation sequence (Standley.Music Therapy Intervention III Music and multimodal stimulation to facilitate neurological growth and development using a (prescribed) auditory. 2003. tactile.

Music Therapy Intervention IV Live. p. slightly stimulating music (sung) to the swaddled infant to facilitate alertness and response to people and the environment (Standley. 94) . 2003.

2003. p. 95) .Music Therapy Intervention V Parent counseling to: Facilitate parents’ comfort and relationship with their infant and his or her condition Promote parent trust of medical personnel and procedures (Standley.

Medical Music Therapy in Pediatrics       Pain Reduction Communication of Distress Normalization of Environment Therapy Enhancement Family Counseling Stimulation (Standley. 2003) .

5 years Randomly Assigned to 4 Groups .Music as a Focus of Attention During Distraction Conditions: A Study with Young Children Wolfe & Naguchi (2003)     75 Kindergarten Students: Public School Multicultural Sample Aged 5 to 5.

Music as a Focus of Attention During Distraction Conditions 4 Groups:     Spoken Story with No Distraction Spoken Story with Distraction Musical Story with No Distraction Musical Story with Distraction (n = 17) (n = 18) (n = 17) (n = 20) .

77-88 dB with headphones) Spoken version of the story was recited at the same tempo as the musical verses and by male voice ..Treatment Musical story/song was “Little Squirrel” CD recording of male voice with instrumental accompaniment (116 sec.

Treatment Visual aids for song and story were pictures of the actions and animals in the story 3 Distracter sounds presented were: – Ambulance Siren – People Talking – Telephone Ringing .

Treatment Each child was told he would listen to a story about a squirrel that did many things The child was instructed to listen to the story and to point to pictures on a board illustrating what the squirrel did during the story Experimenter tabulated correct responses in at correct times in the story    .

and attentive during the musical story conditions.52. df = 3.006)  . whether with or without distraction. engaged. whether with or without distraction Significant Results: Music was an effective focus of attention with or without distraction (F = 4.Results (Wolfe & Naguchi 2003)  Children were more focused. compared to the spoken story conditions. p = .

Music Therapy in Education School or Home  Inclusion: Public School  Special School  Home Care Group or Individual Setting .

Goals of Music Therapy in Education Prevention & Early Intervention Remediation Compensation for Disability .

2000) 148 data based studies (1975 .Research in Music Children & Adolescents with Disabilities (Jellison.1999)  Age range = 14 to 22 months  Children & youth with disabilities  Children & youth with disabilities  Non-disabled children  Compared or combined children: Disabled and typical peers (n = 101) (n = 101) (n = 14) (n = 33) .

speech & language impairment & Rett Syndrome (Jellison. p. 2000. 231)  . severe hearing impairment & emotional disorder The least prevalent populations were brain injury. severe visual impairment.Disabilities in by Frequency in Research Literature  The most prevalent populations were developmental delay. learning disability. attention deficit disorder.

social & verbal behavior (n = 34) Music as a structured activity for academic.Nonmusic Outcomes  Music as a stimulus. motor. social & verbal behavior (n = 25)   . motor. social & verbal behavior & assessment (n = 51) Music as a behavioral contingency for academic. cue or prompt for academic. motor.

p.Music Outcomes         Music Discrimination Singing Listening & Music Preference General Participation Playing Instruments & Instrument Preference Movement Verbalizing (Jellison. 237) (n = 17) (n = 15) (n = 18) (n = 16) (n = 17) (n = 4) (n = 4) (n = 4) . 2000.

.Trends in Music Research (Jellison. 2000) Increase in Music Research with . .  Very Young Children   Children with Attention Deficit Disorder and/or Hyperactivity Children with Autism (Jellison. 243) . 2000 p.

Remediation in Older Children   Child referral and music therapy assessment Goal is to minimize the effects of disability  Music used to engage child playfully and to teach skills .

individually or with others. to promote independence and community .Helping Older Children to Live as Normally as Possible   Child referral and music therapy assessment Child participates in music.

Music Therapy is a Viable Therapy for Children as It Is.          Cost effective An integrative treatment modality Protocol is grounded in research Treatment based on clinical assessment Play-like: Engaging for children Structured and flexible Adaptable to patient’s music preferences & experience Accountable for change in nonmusic skills Useful in group or individual settings . . .

In Conclusion Music therapy is an effective clinical intervention useful in the treatment for hospitalized infants and children with special medical and education needs. .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful