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ZOPFAN Zone Of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (1971)

BACK GROUND

ZOPFAN STILL RELEVANCE?

ZOPFAN COMPONENTS

ZOPFAN

THE GLOBAL THREATS

ASEAN REGIONAL SECURITY

BACKGROUND:
Zon of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality or ZOPFAN, signed on 27 December 1971 in Kuala Lumpur ZOPFAN also known as Declaration of Kuala Lumpur Declaration was signed by the Foreign Ministers of ASEAN member states, included: 1. Malaysia (Tun Abdul Razak) 2. Indonesia (Adam Malik) 3. Philippine (Carlos P. Ramulo) 4. Singapore (S. Rajaratnam) 5. Thailand (Thanat Khonam)

ZOPFAN PRINCIPLES:
1) Regional cooperation in economy, social and cultural fields among the ASEAN member states. 2) Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all states. 3) Recognizing the right of every states and free from outside interference in internal affairs. 4) Dedicated to maintenance of peace, freedom and independence. 5) Neutralization of South east Asia region is a desirable objectives.

ZOPFAN promoting internal security and it contributes to political stability among the ASEAN members. ZOPFAN could be the instrument by which the member states managed their own security environment, without any external intervention. Two security concepts that are frequently applied to ASEAN; 1. Comprehensive 2. Cooperation

ZOPFAN & THE (ASEAN) REGIONAL SECURITY

TAC SEANWFZ ARF

ZOPFAN COMPONENTS

TAC (1976); to promote perpetual peace, everlasting amity and cooperation which would contribute to their strength, solidarity and closer relationship. SEANWFZ (1987); implementing ZOPFAN concepts- to limit extra regional involvement, ASEAN free from nuclear weapons threat. ARF (1994); to foster constructive dialogue and consultation on political and security issues of common interest and concern.

ISSUES THAT CHALLENGE THE CREDIBILITY OF ZOPFAN:

PREAH VIHEAR Temple Dispute; Cambodian and Thai troops exchanged fire near the 11th century Preah Vihear temple on disputed border (Xinhua.net, April 2011)

Burma may be building missile and nuclear sites in remote locations with support from North Korea, according to secret US cables released by Wikileaks (BBC News, Dec. 10, 2010)

SPRATLY ISLAND
DISPUTE OVER SPRATLY

In 1988, where a group of unarmed Vietnamese soldiers, who put up their guns to become workers on the islands of Truong Sa, were ambushed by several Chinese warships. With no fighting capabilities, the Vietnamese workers were massacred by the invading army of the PRC

MALAYSIA

THE CLAIMANT TERRITORY IN SPRATLY ISLAND

CHINA

VIETNAM

PHILIPPINES

ZOPFAN & THE GLOBAL THREATS


Security in ASEAN context relates to much more than concern over military issues and external threat scenarios. ZOPFAN, Post- Cold War era; 1. Military development (arms races) and external military existence in the ASEAN region. 2. Hegemonic powers rivalry over resource in South China Sea- maritime power domination & great powers seeking for the new influences. 3. ASEAN citizen under new threat- the New Cold War?

Myanmar would increase its naval troop strength on the island, while China would help in building two more helipads and storage systems for arms (Times of India, August 2008)

VS.
Obama announced new plan to increase its military presence in Asia Pacific region (including South East Asia) Meanwhile, Singapore and Vietnam have promises to provide bases for US combat ships (Press TV report, Nov. 26, 2011)

ZOPFAN STILL RELEVANCE?