The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals. Leadership is a process of influencing the behavior and work of others in group effort towards the realization of specified goals in a given situation.

.Role and Importance of Leadership • • • • • • • • • Providing inspiration to employees Security cooperation Creation of confidence Providing conducive environment Building higher morale Facilitation of change Developing team work Maintaining discipline Representing the group.

Styles of Leadership • Autocratic Leadership • Democratic/Participative Leadership • Free rein Leadership .

He uses rewards and hold threat of penalties to direct the subordinates.He dominates and drives his group through coercion and command.The leaders give orders and expects the subordinates to follow then ungrudgingly and unquestioningly.he loves power and never delegates authority.Autocratic Leadership An autocratic leader exercises complete control over the subordinates.He centralises power in himself and takes all decisions without consulting the subordinates. .

Advantages • Autocratic leadership style permits quick decision making. • Less competent subordinates are needed at lower levels. . • It provides strong motivation and satisfaction to the leader who dictates terms. • This style may yield positive results when speed is required.

low morale and conflict among subordinates. • Full potential of subordinates and their creative ideas are not required. . • Subordinates tend to shirk responsibility and initiative. • Organizational continuity is threatened in the absence of leader because subordinates get no opportunity for development.Disadvantages • Autocratic style leads to frustration .

. The leader does what group wants and follow the majority opinion.Democratic Leadership A consultative or democratic leader takes decisions in consultation and participation with the subordinates. A democratic leader provides freedom of thinking and expression. grievances and opinions of the subordinates. He keeps the followers informed about matters and affecting them. He listens to the suggestions . He decentralizes authority and allows the subordinates to share the power.

• It cultivates the decision making ability of subordinates. • Labour absenteeism and labour turnover are reduced. • It develops positive attitudes and reduces resistance to change. • The quality of decisions is improved. .Advantages • Consultative leadership improves the job satisfaction and morale of subordinates. • The leader multiplies his abilities through the contribution of his followers.

• It may be used as a means of passing the buck to others and of abdicating responsibility. .Disadvantages • Democratic style is time consuming and may result in delays in decision making. • Over a period of time subordinates may develop the habit of expecting to be consulted on every issue and they may feel frustrated when they are not consulted. • It may not yield positive results when subordinates prefer minimum interaction with the leader. • Consultation may be interpreted as a sign of incompetence on the part of the leader to deal with the problems.

The free-rein leader avoids power and relinquishes the leadership position.He serves only as a contact to bring the information and resources needed by the subordinates. .Free-rein or Laissez –faire Leadership Free-rein leadership involves complete delegation of authority so that subordinates themselves takes decisions.

Advantages • Positive effect on job satisfaction and morale of subordinates. . • Full utilization of the potential of subordinates. • Maximum possible scope for development of subordinates.

Disadvantages • Subordinates do not get the guidance and support of the leader. . • Subordinates may move in different directions and may work at cross purposes which may degenerate into chaos. • It ignores the leader’s contribution just as autocratic style ignores the contribution of the subordinates.

Theories of Leadership • Trait Theory:According to this theory. leadership is a conglomeration or a set of personality traits. This theory has been called to ‘great man Theory’ because it is based on the sets of traits which are common to great men. It is the oldest theory popularized from the time of ancient Greeks. It is a function of personality traits of leader. Traits are innate and inherent personal qualities. It follows that a leader is thought to possess certain traits which separate him from the common mass of leaders. .

training and experience.Researchers have identified the following traits of leaders. the experts revised their opinion and agreed that these qualities can also be developed through education. not made’ . Later on . • • • • Physical Qualities Intellectual Qualities Moral Qualities Social Qualities In the initial stages it was thought traits are inborn(god gifted) and therefore ’leaders are born. .

there is no direct correlation between the level of traits and level of success. • There is no universal list of traits of successful leaders. • It is often difficult to measure traits.This theory has been critisized on certain grounds. • Finally. • Effective leadership is not a function of traits alone. . Many persons possessing the traits have failed as leaders. • Theory does not offer any guidance for developing these qualities .

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