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The vehicle consists of an electric battery for energy storage, an electric motor, and a controller. The battery is normally recharged from mains electricity via a plug and a battery charging unit that can either be carried onboard or fitted at the charging point. The controller will normally control the power supplied to the motor, and hence the vehicle speed, in forward and reverse.
ELECTRIC VEHICLE COMPONENT • Battery
• • • • Motor Controller Charger DC/DC Converter
A battery consists of two or more electric cells joined together. The cells consist of positive and negative electrodes joined by an electrolyte. It is the chemical reaction between the electrodes and the electrolyte which generates DC electricity. The cells convert chemical energy to electrical energy. .
• • • • • • • Lead-acid (Pb-acid) Nickel-metal hydride Lithium-ion (Li-ion) Lithium-polymer (Li-poly) Sodium-sulfur (NaS) Zinc-air (Zn-Air) Sodium metal chloride .
electrical energy being released during the process. • In the lead acid cells the negative plates have a spongy lead as their active material. • the positive plates have an active material of lead dioxide.• The best known and most widely used battery for electric vehicles is the lead acid battery. . • The plates are immersed in an electrolyte of dilute sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid combines with the lead and the lead oxide to produce lead sulphate and water.
• However. • Lead acid batteries are environmentally sound in that they are recycled at an incredibly high rate. they have low specific energy and it is hard to see how a long-range vehicle can be designed using a lead acid battery. • With low energy density. 98% of lead acid batteries are recycled. Lead acid will undoubtedly continue for some considerable time to be widely used for short-range vehicles. poor weight-to-energy density limits its use to stationary and wheeled applications.• The lead acid battery is simple and inexpensive to manufacture. .
the same as it is in a nickel hydrogen battery. except that the hydrogen ions (protons) are stored in the metal hydride structure which also serves as the .REACTION • The NiMH battery is termed an alkaline storage battery due to the use of potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the electrolyte. . the nickel active material is insoluble in the KOH electrolyte which leads to longer life and better abuse tolerance • The active material for the negative electrode in the NiMH battery is actually hydrogen. • The positive electrode of the NiMH battery is nickel hydroxide.
• High electrolyte conductivity allows for high power applications • The battery system can be sealed. minimizing maintenance and leakage issues • Operation is possible over a wide temperature range Long life characteristics offset higher initial cost than some other technologies • Higher energy density and lower cost per watt or watt-hour .
5 volts typical of a normal alkaline cell. This is much higher than the 1. so each cell produces 3. or LiCoO2. During discharge. The negative electrode is made of carbon.• The positive electrode is made of Lithium cobalt oxide. the lithium ions move back to the LiCoO2 from the carbon.7 volts. • When the battery charges. • The movement of these lithium ions happens at a fairly high voltage. . ions of lithium move through the electrolyte from the positive electrode to the negative electrode and attach to the carbon.
a device that is supposed to keep the battery from overheating. it separates the positive and negative electrodes while allowing ions to pass through. The battery will probably be useless afterwards. this vent will release the extra pressure. So is the Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) switch. so this is something to avoid. If the battery ever gets so hot that it risks exploding from over-pressure. The vent is strictly there as a safety measure. • Their is some kind of pressure-sensitive vent hole.• The separator is a very thin sheet of microperforated plastic. . As the name implies.
Using lead-acid technology. A lead-acid battery can store only 25 watt-hours per kilogram. Here is a way to get a perspective on the energy density. it takes 6 kilograms to store the same amount of energy that a 1 kilogram lithium-ion battery can handle. . meaning that a lot of energy can be stored in its atomic bonds. Lithium is also a highly reactive element.• The electrodes of a lithium-ion battery are made of lightweight lithium and carbon. A NiMH (nickel-metal hydride) battery pack can store perhaps 100 watt-hours per kilogram. This translates into a very high energy density for lithium-ion batteries. although 60 to 70 watt-hours might be more typical. A lithium-ion battery pack loses only about 5 percent of its charge per month. compared to a 20 percent loss per month for NiMH batteries. A typical lithiumion battery can store 150 watt-hours of electricity in 1 kilogram of battery. • They hold their charge.
• Lithium-air batteries are complex electrochemical systems consisting of a porous electrode allowing oxygen from the air to be reduced. • It is a metal-air battery chemistry that uses the oxidation of lithium at the anode and reduction of oxygen at the cathode to induce a current flow. This combination gives a high energy density. a negative electrode of a pure lithium metal and an electrolyte which is an organic solvent with a lithium salt. .
• The electrolyte vaporization and anode hydrolysis are limiting the capacity of Lithium-air batteries.• Corrosion of the air electrode catalysts is considered to result from oxidation of carbon to form Li2CO3. therefore different ionic hydrophobic liquids have been investigated due to their resistance to water and low evaporation rates .
A DC voltage is connected across the capacitor. whereas the power source has high specific power. one plate being positive the other negative. The opposite charges on the plates attract and hence store energy. • Capacitors are devices in which two conducting plates are separated by an insulator. Power sources can be recharged from the . • The large energy storing capacitors with large plate areas have come to be called ultracapacitors. The average power required from the energy storage is much lower than the peak power for acceleration and hill climbing in a relatively short duration.• Because of the frequent stop-and-go operation of EVs . the discharging and charging profile of the energy storage is highly varied. mainly batteries and fuel cells. has high specific energy. • The energy source.
and the direction in which the conductor tends to move. and the density of the magnetic field. a magnetic force acting on the wire is produced. This relationship is explained by using the RIGHT-HAND RULE FOR MOTORS . • The magnetic force is proportional to the wire length.• PRINCIPLE : When a wire carrying electric current is placed into a magnetic field. magnitude of the electric current. that Is: F = BIL • There is a definite relationship between the direction of the magnetic field. the direction of current in the conductor.
• Series wound type of motor develops a very large amount of turning force. The shunt field gives this type of motor the constant speed advantage of a regular shunt motor. The series field gives it the advantage of being able to develop a large torque when the motor is started . such as traction. Series DC motors are suitable for applications requiring high starting torque and heavy torque overload. their speed will quickly increase up to a very high value Some load must ALWAYS be connected to a series motor before you turn it on . from a standstill. Another characteristic is that the speed varies widely between no-load and full-load. • In compound type. Otherwise. • In case of shunt DC motor the speed remains relatively constant even under changing load conditions. One reason for this is that the field flux remains constant. • They are not allowed to operate without the load torque with full supply voltage. called torque. Another disadvantage is the difficulty of regenerative braking.
it needs of NO power at all. The stator of the motor is composed by the electromagnets. No connection needs to be done with the rotor. It faces the magnets perpendicularly and can distinguish if the North or South pole is in front of it. • The trick of operation in BLDC motors is the Hall sensor that is attached to the stator. • The major advantage of the brushless motors is that. usually 4 of them. It has usually 4 magnets around the perimeter. . thus. due to the fact that the rotor carries only the permanent magnets. no brushcommutator pair needs to be made. placed in a cross pattern with 90o angle between them.• It has the permanent magnets glued on the rotor.
• The only disadvantage of a brushless motor is its higher initial cost. The coils have both the same magnetic polarity which is North. When the sensor senses no magnetic field (or could be also the South pole).• The Hall sensor is this little component under the right electromagnet. • With the electromagnets on the stator. . but you can often recover that cost through the greater efficiency over the life of the motor. • There are no brushes to wear out. So they pull the opposite pole and torque is then created. it keeps the coils turned off. then it turns on the coils. • There is no sparking and much less electrical noise. they are very easy to cool. When it senses the South pole.
The three windings are spatially arranged by 120◦ • The stator is connected to a 3-phase AC power supply. • A cross section of a two-pole induction motor is shown in Figure.• An induction or asynchronous motor is a type of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic induction. The turns of each winding are distributed such that the current in the winding produces an approximate sinusoidally distributed flux density around the periphery of the air gap. In the following illustration phase A is connected to phase A of the power supply. Phase B and C would also be connected to phases B and C of the power supply . Slots in the inner periphery of the stator are inserted with three phase windings.
When the stator windings are energized a rotating magnetic field is established. The north pole of the rotating magnetic field attracts the south pole of the magnet. it pulls the magnet along causing it to rotate. and the south pole of the rotating magnetic field attracts the north pole of the magnet. The magnet has its own magnetic field that interacts with the rotating magnetic field of the stator. .• To see how a rotor works. As the rotating magnetic field rotates. a magnet mounted on a shaft can be substituted for the squirrel cage rotor.
which can determine the range of the car and the top speed. regulating or limiting the torque. The controller integrates the motor speeds and expected battery range/speed through its energy density. • Coordinating between the controller and the motor can help a car accelerate from 0 to 60 in 6 to 7 seconds (or less). This computer “controls” or governs the performance of the electric motor. governing the speed. going forward or backward.• A controller basically is the brain or computer of an electric car. and protecting against overloads and faults. • The controller controls both manual or automatic drive systems for starting and stopping. .
• Switch Controller: they are a set of big switches that connect the batteries and motor(s) in various series/parallel combinations to get discrete speeds. they use solid-state switches (SCR. etc. • Solid-State Controller: The DC brushed motor with solidstate controller is the most common type. IGBT. . These are more common among lower voltage controllers since low voltage MOSFETs tend to have very low on resistance (and hence power loss).) to replace the mechanical switches in a switch controller. Basically. These controllers have been used for decades in all types of electric vehicles. and are widely available . MOSFET. transistor.
They are used in high-end EVs where meeting performance objectives is more important than cost. . Like modern ICEs.• AC Controller: The AC motor with solid-state inverter is the most sophisticated type. these AC controllers are very complex and expensive. but offer the most advanced features (like cruise control and regenerative braking) and provide the best overall range. An AC induction motor or AC PM motor (often called a “brushless DC” motor) is driven by an inverter that converts battery DC voltage into variable voltage variable frequency 3-phase AC. New EV sports cars and the recent auto company produced EVs all used AC drive systems.
When you insert the paddle. . it forms a complete transformer with the slot. The other half is inside the car. and power transfers to the car. The paddle acts as one half of a transformer. The charging system sends electricity to the car using this inductive paddle.• The charger is an attached and inseparable part of every electric vehicle battery system. The Magna-Charge System: • A charging station mounted to the wall of the house • A charging system in the trunk of the car The charging station is hard-wired to a 240-volt 40-amp circuit through the house's circuit panel. positioned around the slot behind the license plate.
inductive charging is considered a short-distance "wireless" energy transfer. Because there is a small gap between the two coils employed in each of the sender and receiver of the energy within the respective devices. • Induction chargers typically use an induction coil to create an alternating electromagnetic field from within a charging base station. and a second induction coil in the portable device takes power from the electromagnetic field and converts it back into electrical current to charge the battery. which then can use that energy to charge batteries.• Inductive charging uses an electromagnetic field to transfer energy between two objects. • This is usually done with a charging station. . Energy is sent through inductive coupling to an electrical device.
Benefits: • Convenience and simplicity for electric vehicle owners . automatic charging by simply parking a vehicle in a garage or parking spot System activates the moment a vehicle is aligned with the charging pad. . • No plugs or charging cords needed • Environmental factors such as snow or rain would have no effect on the wireless energy transfer • Low maintenance for commercial and public installations No moving / mechanical parts • Helps advance the establishment of a global infrastructure for electric vehicle charging Disadvantage: Inductive charging also requires drive electronics and coils. • Enables easy. increasing the complexity and cost of manufacturing.
• Momentum is the property that keeps the vehicle moving forward once it's been brought up to speed.• Regenerative braking is used in vehicles that make use of electric motors. Once the motor has been reversed. primarily fully electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. when it's run in one direction. the electricity generated by the motor is fed back into the batteries. • electric motor is that. converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. . a properly designed motor becomes an electric generator. but when the motor is run in the opposite direction. it converts electrical energy into mechanical energy that can be used to perform work (such as turning the wheels of a car).
the vehicle runs noiselessly. . 3) There are no emissions from EVs making them environmental friendly. 4) Manufacturing EVs is very easy. This is especially true for small motorcycles or mopeds. 2) Since there is no IC engine. in fact many times you won’t even know that a vehicle has just passed you. 5) EVs require less maintenance.Advantages of EVs: 1) Electricity is readily available. you have to merely assemble various components of the vehicle.
As such there are no battery charging stations available on roads and highways. In future the trend of providing charging points is surely going to spread across other businesses and states. . The pollutants created by thermal power plants are one of major source of air-pollution. you can chose a hybrid car. To compensate for this. The electricity generated from solar energy is totally pollution free. you may be at the risk of the battery running out. 2) If you are traveling a long distance. 3) Though the vehicle running on electricity does not produce pollution. which can run on gasoline when the battery runs out.Disadvantages of EVs: 1) The major disadvantage of EVs is that the battery has to be charged regularly. In some states like California and Arizona. the power plants producing electricity do produce pollution. but they are not available everywhere. The normal working range of battery is about 50-130 miles and it takes about 6-8 hours to recharge completely. shopping malls and some stores offer charging facilities.
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