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Operations Management by R. Dan Reid & Nada R. Sanders 2nd Edition © Wiley 2005
PowerPoint Presentation by R.B. Clough - UNH
Define layout planning and its importance Identify and describe different types of layouts Compare process layouts & product layouts Describe the steps involved in designing both process and product layouts Explain the advantages of hybrid layouts Define the meaning of group technology & its importance to cellular layouts
What Is Layout Planning Layout planning is determining the best physical arrangement of resources within a facility Two broad categories of operations: Intermittent processing systems Continuous processing systems .
e.Types of Layouts Process layouts: Group similar resources together Designed to produce a specific product efficiently Combine aspects of both process and product layouts Product is two large to move. a building Product layouts: Hybrid layouts: Fixed-Position layouts: .g.
Process Layouts General purpose & flexible resources Lower capital intensity & automation Higher labor intensity Resources have greater flexibility Processing rates are slower Material handling costs are higher Scheduling resources & work flow is more complex Space requirements are higher .
Product Layouts Specialized equipment High capital intensity & wide use of automation Processing rates are faster Material handling costs are lower Less space required for inventories Less volume or design flexibility .
Hybrid Layouts Combine elements of both product & process layouts Maintain some of the efficiencies of product layouts Maintain some of the flexibility of process layouts Examples: Group technology & manufacturing cells Grocery stores .
different general purpose Facilities: Flexibility: Processing Rates: more labor intensive greater relative to market slower more capital intensive lower relative to market faster Handling costs: high low Space requirements: higher lower . Product Layouts Process Layouts Products: Resources: Product Layouts small # efficiently specialized large #.Comparison of Product vs.
space available.Designing Process Layouts Step 1: Gather information: Space needed. importance of proximity between various units Step 2: Develop alternative block plans: Using trial-and-error or decision support tools Consider exact sizes and shapes of departments and work centers including aisles and stairways Tools like drawings. 3-D models. and CAD software are available to facilitate this process Step 3: Develop a detailed layout .
ft. ft. ft. E Surgery & Recovery 900 sq. ft. ft.Process Layout Steps Step 1: Gather information like space needed. C Lobby & Waiting 300 sq. D Examining Rooms 800 sq.) A Radiology 400 sq. ft. ft. F Physical Therapy 1050 sq. B Laboratory 300 sq. . from-to matrix. and REL Chart for Recovery First Sports Medicine Clinic (total space 3750 sq.
Step 1: Gather Information (continued) .
Step 2: Develop a New Block Layout Use trial and error with from-to and REL Charts as a guide Use computer software like ALDEP or CRAFT .
more docks. less storage space. and less order picking .4) modifies the traditional warehouse layouts.Warehouse Layouts Warehouse Layout Considerations: Primary decision is where to locate each department relative to the dock Departments can be organized to minimize “ld” totals Departments of unequal size require modification of the typical ld calculations to include a calculation of the “ratio of trips to area needed” The usage of “Crossdocking” (see Ch.
Office Layouts Office Layout Considerations: Almost half of US workforce works in an office environment Human interaction and communication are the primary factors in designing office layouts Layouts need to account for physical environment and psychological needs of the organization One key layout trade-off is between proximity and privacy Open concept offices promote understanding & trust Flexible layouts incorporating “office landscaping” help to solve the privacy issue in open office environments .
idle time & balance delay 1: 2: 3: 4: .Designing Product Layouts Step Step Step Step Identify tasks & immediate predecessors Determine the desired output rate Calculate the cycle time Compute the theoretical minimum number of workstations Step 5: Assign tasks to workstations (balance the line) Step 6: Compute efficiency.
G H Total task time 50 5 25 15 12 10 15 18 15 165 .F.4 Vicki's Pizzeria and the Precedence Diagram Immediate Task Time Work Element Task Description Predecessor (seconds A B C D E F G H I Roll dough Place on cardboard backing Sprinkle cheese Spread Sauce Add pepperoni Add sausage Add mushrooms Shrinkwrap pizza Pack in box None A B C D D D E.Step 1: Identify Tasks & Immediate Predecessors Example 10.
72 units/hr./unit ) available time sec./unit Maximum output ./hr./day 60 min/hr x 60 sec/min 60 sec.or pizzas per hour bottlenecktask time 50 sec./unit desiredoutput units/hr 60 units/hr Limited by the bottleneck task (the longest task in a process): available time 3600 sec.Layout Calculations Step 2: Determine output rate Vicki needs to produce 60 pizzas per hour Step 3: Determine cycle time The amount of time each workstation is allowed to complete its tasks Cycle time (sec.
75.Layout Calculations (continued) Step 4: Compute the theoretical minimum number of stations TM = number of stations needed to achieve 100% efficiency (every second is used) TM task times cycle time 165 seconds 2. or 3 stations 60 sec/statio n Always round up (no partial workstations) Serves as a lower bound for our analysis .
Layout Calculations (continued) Step 5: Assign tasks to workstations Start at the first station & choose the longest eligible task following precedence relationships Continue adding the longest eligible task that fits without going over the desired cycle time When no additional tasks can be added within the desired cycle time. F F H I Task Selected A B C D G E F H I Task time 50 5 25 15 15 12 10 18 15 Idle time 10 5 35 20 5 48 38 20 5 Workstation 2 3 . begin assigning tasks to the next workstation until finished 1 Eligible task A B C D E. G E. F.
Balance delay (%) is the amount by which the line falls short of 100% Balance delay 100% 91.7% 3 stations x 60 sec. 100 91.7% 8.3% .Last Layout Calculation Step 6: Compute efficiency and balance delay Efficiency (%) is the ratio of total productive time divided by total time Efficiency t (% ) NC 165 sec.
O. enhance communication & visibility. impact location of loading & unloading Paced lines use an automatically enforced cycle time Paced versus un-paced lines Single or mixed-model lines .Other Product Layout Considerations Shape of the line (S. L): Share resources. U.
Designing Hybrid Layouts One of the most popular hybrid layouts uses Group Technology (GT) and a cellular layout GT has the advantage of bringing the efficiencies of a product layout to a process layout environment .
Process Flows before the Use of GT Cells .
Process Flows after the Use of GT Cells .
Process layouts provide flexibility to make a variety of different products. . and fixed position. There are four basic types of layouts: process. The steps for designing process layouts are: gather space and closeness information. and develop a detailed layout.Chapter 10 Highlights Layout planning is deciding on the best physical arrangement of resources. hybrid. product. develop a block plan. Product layouts provide greater efficiency for one product.
Hybrids layouts combine elements from both types of layouts to increase efficiency. determine output rate. computing the theoretical minimum number of work stations. . and computing efficiency and balance delay. Hybrid layouts combine GT analysis with cellular layout concepts . assigning tasks to workstations.Chapter 10 Highlights (continued) The steps for designing an product layout are: identify tasks and predecessors. determine cycle time.
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