Brain and Nervous System!

Good Luck!!!

Gross Organization of the Nervous System:
The organ system responsible for producing, controlling, and guiding our acts, thoughts and responses.


The most “available” division of the nervous system to the early anatomists for examination is the peripheral nervous system (PNS). If nerve tissue is not encased in bone (skull, spinal column), it is part of the PNS.

Somatic (voluntary):

• Somatic nervous system at one time was called voluntary nervous system. • Supplies the muscles, and connective tissues attached to the skeleton and our skin. • Responsible for our voluntary movements and physical sensations (heat, cold, vibration, pain) • Individual nerves are made up of afferent and efferent nerve fibers.

Afferent Nerves:
Afferent: direction of the impulses it transmits go toward the nervous system from the body's muscles and skin. Therefore, afferent nerves conduct sensory information towards the nervous system. ex: touch cup and the nerve

impulse goes into your body

Efferent Nerves

Fiber sends impulses away from the nervous system in the direction of the body's muscles. The efferent fibers generate movements of the skeleton and hence are motor nerve fibers since their activation causes the locomotion of our limbs, torso and facial features.

ex: the nerve going from your brain to your hand to move your hand to touch the cup.

Autonomic(Involuntary) • used to be called the involuntary nervous system. • responsible for sensory and motor functions outside of our voluntary control o ex.) internal organs and glands, smooth muscles in our gastrointestinal tract and blood vessels and the smooth muscles attached to our skin. • subdivisions, the sympathetic and parasympathetic

a. Sympathetic (Fight or Flight) · Prepares us for the expenditure of energy · Ex: cause rises in blood flow to the skeletal muscles, an increases in heart rate, blood pressure and respiration rate and a reduction in blood flow to tissues on the body surface (i.e., skin) and the gastrointestinal tract and a slowing of intestinal movement

b. Parasympathetic (Rest & Recuperation) · Stores energy and restores restoration of body and rest · Most active during digestion · Ex: causes a rise in blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract and stimulating digestive activity and decreases in heart rate, blood pressure and respiration rate

B. Central · those that are encased in bone for protection, namely the brain and spinal cord · Inside skull and spinal vertebrae are 3 membrane layers: o Dura matar: Hard mother, outside o Arachnoid membrane: web-like cushion o Pia mater: inner, soft mother cushion Together these are called meninges and protect from infection · Brain and spinal cord float on a layer of liquid called cerebrospinal fluid held between meninges · Blood vessels of the brain have a tight form of gap junctures called the blood brain barrier and regulate what goes from the circulatory system to the CNS

1. Spinal Cord · MAIN FUNCTION: conduct nerve impulses from afferent (sensory) nerves to the brain and send efferent (motor) impulses to the PNS · Sensory fibers enter spinal cord through its dorsal surface (back) and motor fibers exit through ventral surface (towards stomach) · spinal cord interneurons control reflex responses which are enacted without a command from the brain o Ex: knee-jerk reflex · Structurally, center of spinal cord has tube running thru it with cerebrospinal fluid called the central canal

2. Brain · responsible for guiding and controlling behavior · processes sensory information, stores information about past experiences (i.e., learning and memory), executes actions based on those processed sensations and/or memories

a. Ventricles · system of interconnected fluid-filled chambers in the brain · store and produce cerebrospinal fluid · choroid plexus (membranous structure rich in blood cells) floats inside the ventricles, makes new CSF and recycles old CSF into bloodstream o cell loss disorders such as schizophrenia or Alzheimer‟s disease can caused enlarged ventricles (inside out shrinkage)

b. Hemispheres · Right and left side of the brain connected by fiber pathways

biggest, most important= corpus callosum which allows two

hemispheres to communicate

Left Hemisphere: analytical tasks, breaking down problems, and in language production and comprehension

Right Hemisphere: emotional processing, math, music, and synthetic processing, i.e., perceiving "wholes" out of individual component elements

• Sides work more exclusively in males

A. Hindbrain · responsible for functions not under voluntary control which maintain both voluntary and involuntary movements

a. Medulla · Region of the brain that controls autonomic (involuntary) functions (startle, sleep, wake, heart rate, blood pressure, respiration) · through these centers that the actions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems manipulate these physiological responses

b. Pons · input and output fiber pathway connecting brain and cerebellum · Motor commands from brain go through pons to spine

c. Cerebellum · small part of brain containing half nerve cells · fine-tune the motor signals · damage to cerebellum disrupts coordination, balance

B. Midbrain · More complex than hindbrain, still processes not under conscious control · colliculi process visual and auditory information · superior colliculus controls involuntary eye movements and the targeting of the eyes · inferior colliculus processes auditory information, makes sounds in environment relative to our position

C. Forebrain · Most complex part of the brain · allows the enormous flexibility in our behaviors and problem solving skills

a. Hypothalamus · Below thalamus · Seat of emotional behaviors · Feeding, fighting, fleeing · Involved in our response to stress · our emotions, memories, thoughts, and expectations can influence the function of the body‟s endocrine hormonal control over our psychological process.

b. Thalamus · sends sensory (taste, touch, hearing, vision, but NOT smell) to the appropriate brain regions for further processing · Metaphor: phone switchboard

c. Limbic System · moves motivations based on memory, planning, emotion, reinforcement and attention to a decision to act · Amygdala= helps an emotion attach significance to raw data making it easier to remember later. It also makes emotional response because of previous information (rattlesnake)

d. Cerebrum/Cortex · Biggest hunk of forebrain · Cortex is the visible part of brain and is most extensive and complex sensory processing · highly folded with ridges called gyri and grooves called sulci who created greater surface area of the brain b/c of limited space · 4 Lobes: o occipital lobe: processes visual info; in the back of the brain o parietal lobe: soma-sensatory info-touch, heat, cold, pain o temporal lobe: § lateral (outside): auditory processing and spoken language § medial (inner): memory functions o Frontal lobes: planning, foresight, understanding the consequences of actions and the selection and initiation of motor movements- decide what to do based on experiences, smell=bottom of frontal lobes

III. Functional Organization of the Brain · categorized into processing sensory information, generating motor movements and integrating information about both the internal state of the organism (for example, hunger, thirst or injury) and emotions and memories of past learning and experiences to guide the selection of an appropriate motor response to a given set of sensory stimuli.

A. Sensory Systems · Except for olfaction (smell) sensory information goes to the thalamus (in the forebrain)

B. Motor System · -The motor system begins in the frontal lobes. The premotor cortex and supplemental motor area are involved in the planning of voluntary movements. Then the primary motor cortex projects to the basal ganglia (fine tuning, needs transmitter to function), which then projects to the midbrain motor areas which then project to the cerebellum (movement made smooth) motor neurons or the spinal cord (movement is done)

-->Weighs options -->Commands sent here--sequences of motion planned out ----->Sloppy without basal ganglia

-------->Settles out primary (uses DA)

-->Movement made smooth -->Goes out muscles

Ex: Parkinson's disease- the basal ganglia (while intact) is deprived of a critical chemical messenger, dopamine. **Complicated motor tasks: a lot of muscles have to fire in the right sequence, when you do this successfully there is a feedback loop (below). The loop gets stronger and stronger with practice

C. Limbic System · A bunch of structures involving temporal lobe, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex · Hypothalamic structures: o Hippocampus- transferring information from our short-term memory to our long-term m connected to the mammillary bodies: § allow memories and expectations to be activated by our internal states such as hunge fear o Amygdala- adds emotional impact to events transferred into long term memory o Cingulate cortexo Prefrontal cortex- planning memory and selecting behavior based on given situation Limbic/Endocrine System Interactions · Limbic system can influence hypothalamic areas which directly control the activity of the pituitary, which is the master gland of the endocrine system · Our psychological state can influence our physical condition. o Ex: Man whose wife died got an infection on the inside of his heart o Ex2: Stress response stopped the girl's period

IV. Cells of the Nervous System · neurons may only comprise 10-50% of the cells found in a given area, most cells are glia A. Glia · Neurons need glia to function effectively ·Housekeeping (clean up/maintenance in the brain). Don't need pure glucose to function (like neurons do)

1. Schwann Cells & Oligodendrocytes · Schwann cells are the myelin (electrical insulation) producing cells of the PNS. · Oligondendrocytes are myelin producing cells for the CNS.

2. Astrocytes · They store energy (starch) for neurons in CNS and they create scar tissue at the site of injuries. do housekeeping for the neurons.

3. Microglia · immune system for CNS

B. Neurons · - The info/signal processors. Highly specialized. Many dif sizes · Main parts: o DENDRITES: the „input” side of the neuron. Highly branched- looks like a tree o SOMA: cell body contains cell‟s nucleus, organelles, and the metabolic and protein manufacturing machinery-main part, machinery o AXON: output side, projects from the soma. The “antenna” or cable. o TERMINAL BUTTON: the business end of the axon. Releases the transmitters used in neurons-to-neuron communication

VI. Neuronal Physiology · Neurons devote most of their energy to generating and maintaining a slight electrical charge imbalance · Always running down and being recharged like a battery

1. The (Resting) Membrane Potential · -70mV: due to protein anions and potassium* a. The Ions · potassium (K+): 1 pos charge · sodium (Na+): 1 pos charge · Chloride (Cl-): anion = neg. charge · Calcium (Ca++): 2 pos charges · Cations: positively charged ions · Anions: negatively charged ions · Protein anions are in inner cell surface and can never leave (-A) and are the initial bait, K+ moves freely · reversal potential for potassium- point where equal amount pulling in and pushing out= -70mV – due to protein anions and potassium*

b. Pumps & Channels · Na+ is smaller than Ca++, and therefore the pore of a Na+ is smaller than the pore of a Ca++ specific channel · only K+ has some channels that are always open and the rest are normally “pinched” closed

2. The Action Potential

· very rapid rise away from the resting membrane potential and then the equally rapid reversal back to the resting potential · Neurons firing = action potential · appears on the axon and travels down the axon to each and every terminal button of the axon · When an action potential occurs voltage-dependent Na+ channels open briefly and Na+ rushes in and the membrane potential rises until the electrical and diffusion forces on Na+ cancel each other out (at about +55 millivolts) and the electrical force pushing Na+ out matches the magnitude of the diffusion force pushing it in. At this point the Na+ channels close. Some Ka+ channels are open · Once the Na+ channel close, K+ leaves the neuron (taking its positive charges with t)through these additional open voltage-dependent K+ channels, as well as the other constantly open K+ channels. · K+ leaving with its charge is what brings neuron to resting potential. · Axon Hillock= gatekeeper, decides if the signal will get passed · This chain reaction opening of voltage-dependent channels is called active conduction.

a. Threshold: the level of simulation required to trigger a neural impulse b. Refractory periods · how fast can a neuron fire? The answer is 500-100 times per second, maximum · refractory period, the minimum time required for the neuron to prepare for firing another action potential. · absolute refractory period is caused by the voltage-dependent Na+ channels which have to physically and mechanically "reset" themselves after they close but before they can reopen. · absolute refractory period is about 1-2 milliseconds. · During the absolute refractory period it is physically impossible for the neuron to fire another action potential; cannot be done.

b. Refractory periods The refractory period, the minimum time required for the neuron to prepare for firing another action potential. Two components: • the absolute refractory period • relative refractory period • The absolute refractory period is caused by the voltage-dependent Na+ channels which have to physically and mechanically "reset" themselves after they close but before they can reopen. When they open voltage-dependent Na+ channels stay open for about 1 millisecond and the "reset" process takes about 1-2 milliseconds. Hence, the absolute refractory period is about 1-2 milliseconds. During the absolute refractory period it is physically impossible for the neuron to fire another action potential; cannot be done. The duration of the relative refractory period varies but typically it lasts several milliseconds. The basis ofthe relative refractory period lies in the movement of K+ throughthe constantly open and voltage-dependent K+ channels in response tothe depolarization phase of the action potential. As K+ leaves the cell, repolarizing the neuron back towards the resting potential, moreK+ than is necessary to repolarize leaves the neuron due to all the additional open channels. This excess loss of K+ results in hyperpolarization, the membrane potential becoming more negative than resting potential, but the membrane quickly returns to resting. Unlike the absolute refractory period, the neuron can fire during the relative refractory period. However, since the neuron is hyperpolarized, slightly more negative than usual, the task of the incoming graded potential is more difficult. The electrotonic potential must still reach the threshold potential despite the more negative membrane potential. So, only unusually strong signals can trigger a second action potential during the relative refractory period.

c. Summation This totaling of all the excitatory and inhibitory signals is called summation. Summation is a practical requirement for an action potential to be generated. However, there are two types of summation. i. Temporal One type of summation is temporal summation, in which one terminal button at one synapse is firing repeatedly, over and over. The term temporal summation refers to the repeated rapid-fire signals from a single synapse "summing up" in time.
ii. Spatial The second type of summation is called spatial summation, where individual signals from separate synapses located at different spatial locations across the neuron, occur close enough in time that they converge and "add up" as they travel across the neuron

B. The Synapse The synapse is a structure where neuronal signaling and communication occurs that includes parts of both the sending (presynaptic)and receiving (postsynaptic) neurons. It is also thought that some long-lasting psychological changes such as learning, memory, habits, recovery from a brain injury and even addiction may reflect long-term changes in the function of the synapses involved in those functions. The structural integrity of the synapse is partially maintained by proteins called neuronal cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs), which act like velcro and serve to anchor the terminal button to the dendrite.

1. The Terminal Button The terminal button is the tip of the axon, but it does have some unique properties that make it specialized for communication.

entry of Ca++ into the terminal button is CRITICAL for the release of chemical messengers (aka nerurotransmitters)

2. The Synaptic Cleft The gap between the terminal button and the dendrite is incredibly small, only 20 to 50 nanometers. That is smaller than the shortest visible wavelength of light which is about400 nanometers. The neurotransmitter released from the terminal button only takes 1-2 milliseconds to passively diffuse across the gap/cleft where the transmitter molecules make contact with receptors for them.

3. The Postsynaptic Density The postsynaptic density is the dendritic part of the synapse where the receptors for the neurotransmitters, as well as other structural and biochemical machinery involved in generating a response to the transmitter, are located and anchored.

VII.Neurotransmitters There have been over one hundred compounds that have been identified or proposed as neurotransmitters. Transmitters must be synthesized, packaged and stored, released, activate a receptor and metabolized. The terminal button is the site of all these functions. The receptors have specific binding sites on them that allow the transmitters to activate them. The action of the transmitters at their receptors depends primarily on the physical shape of the transmitter molecule and its chemical nature. With over a hundred transmitters, we will concern ourselves with only a few of the most studied and most important ones. It is important to note that every drug that has a psychological effect, whether as a medicine or a drug of abuse, has that effect by somehow influencing the activity of a neurotransmitter system that is already present in the brain. These drugs may influence the transmitter system at any one of the following levels: synthesis, storage, vesicle release, receptor activation, enzymatic breakdown or reuptake. If the drug increases or facilitates the activity or effect of the transmitter it is called an agonist. If the drug decreases, interferes with or blocks the activity of the transmitter, it is called an antagonist. It is also important to note that if the drug successfully impersonates the transmitter at the receptor and activates it, it is referred to as a direct agonist. In fact the transmitter itself may be referred to as a direct agonist for its receptor. If the drug unsuccessfully impersonates the transmitter at the receptor, attaching itself to it, but not activating it, it is then referred to as a direct antagonist.

A.Acetylcholine Acetylcholine (ACh) is our lone transmitter that relies on enzymatic degradation in the cleft to terminate its signal. ACh is synthesized from choline, which is typically used as a component of the cell membrane, and the enzyme Acetyl-CoA. By an enzyme called choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). It is broken down by acetylcholinesterase (AChase). Most of the limbic system's and cerebral cortex's source of ACh comes from a group of structures called the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF).The two most prominent structures of the basal forebrain are the septum and the nucleus basalis. ACh is involved in learning, memory, sleeping and waking and sensory processing.

B. The Monoamines The monoamines are grouped together because they share a lone amino group at one end of their chemical structure. The monoamines are in turn classified further into two groups, catecholamines and indolamines based on their chemical structures at the other end of the molecules.

1. Tyrosine-based Tyrosine is an amino acid found in the diet that is the basic building block for the catecholamines. The term catecholamine denotes that the compounds share a catechol as part of their structure (a benzene ring with two hydroxide groups attached to it).

a. Dopamine (DA) For the synthesis of dopamine, tyrosine is first converted to L-DOPA by a relatively slow-acting enzyme called tyrosine hydroxylase. Then the LDOPA is converted to dopamine by an enzyme called DOPA decarboxylase. There are two major sources for the brain's supply of dopamine. One is the substantianigra (SN; literally, the black substance in Latin) which provides its dopamine exclusively to systems in charge of voluntary movements. The other is the ventral tegmental area (VTA) which provides its dopamine to brain systems involved in learning, memory, reward and cognition.

b. Norepinephrine (NE) The brain's supply of norepinephrine, is produced by the locus ceruleus (LC; Latin for the blue spot). Norepinephrine cells first go through all the steps of manufacturing DA and then dopamine-betahydroxylase converts dopamine into norepinephrine. The LC, which is associated with the reticular activating system, provides NE for the entire forebrain and this transmitter seems to be especially important in memory, attention, emotional arousal and response to novelty.

c. Epinephrine (E) There are very, very few epinephrine producing cells in the brain. The few cells that do are in the lower parts of the brain and produce epinephrine from norepinephrine by way of the enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase.

2. Tryptophan-based Tryptophan is another amino acid found in the diet that is the basic building block for an indolamine neurotransmitter. The term indolamine denotes that the compound has an indolering as part of its structure (a benzene ring with another five member nitrogen containing ring four attached to it).

a. Serotonin (5HT) The majority of the brain's serotonin is produced and distributed throughout the entire forebrain by the cells of the dorsal raphe nucleus, which is also associated with the reticular activating system. Serotonin is among the most widely distributed transmitters and has roles in learning, memory, attention, mood, aggression, appetite, sleeping and waking, sensory processing, and arousal. Serotonin is often referred to as 5HT, for 5hydroxytryptamine, serotonin's official chemical name.

C. The Amino Acids Along with serotonin, the most widely used and important transmitters are the amino acid neurotransmitters.

1. Glutamate (excitatory) Glutamate is the most common neurotransmitter in the brain and is the primary excitatory transmitter in the brain. Glutamate is found in the diet but it can also be synthesized as a by-product from the Krebs citric acid cycle in the mitochondria. It is especially important in sensory processing and learning and memory.

2. GABA (inhibitory) GABA, gamma-aminobutyric acid, is far less common than glutamate but it is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. While the diet is not a primary source of GABA, it can be synthesized from glutamate. By virtue of its role in quieting the activity of nerve cells, it plays a role in learning, memory, sensory processing, sleep and waking and relief from anxiety.

D. Peptides As neurotransmitters, peptides are an exception to the rule that transmitters are manufactured at the terminal button. All peptides, which are short proteins,are made in the cell body and shipped in vesicles out of the axon and to the terminal buttons. There are several peptides used as neurotransmitters. Many of them, outside of the brain, act as hormones. But within the brain because the blood-brain barrier prevents them from exiting, the same peptide molecules serve a second use as neurotransmitters. One example is cholecystokinin, which in the digestive system is a hormone which stimulates the pancreas and the liver, but in the brain is a neurotransmitter with roles in pain, memory, anxiety and coincidentally, hunger, as well.

VIII.Neurotransmitter Receptors Every neurotransmitter receptor is a complex protein that spans the neuron‟s membrane and has an external and an internal facing side. All receptors have TWO separate binding sites for the transmitter. These binding sites are depressions or pits in the receptor that can be thought of as keyholes in a door lock, and their shape is a match for the shape of the transmitter molecules. When two molecules of the transmitter,or any other direct agonist, attach to the receptor binding sites simultaneously, the receptor is activated. There are however, two general classes of receptor for almost each transmitter.

A. Ligand-Gated Ion Channels (Ionotropic) The ligand-gated ion channels are distant relatives of the voltage-dependent ion channels found on the axon. The most obvious difference is that the voltage-dependent channels had a mechanism for sensing changes in electrical charge, while the ligand-gated ion channels have receptor binding sites that act as a mechanism for detecting the presence of the transmitter. Other than that they are tubes that are normally pinched closed until the binding sites have been activated, and then they briefly open and allow charged ions to enter for a short time. It is the entrance of these ions that cause the EPSPs and IPSPs frickin Salinas talked about earlier. These receptors are also called ionotropic since they allow ions to pass into the neurons.

B. G-Protein Linked (Metabotropic) The second general class of receptor is the G-protein linked, also called metabotropic. The Gprotein linked does not have a pore as part of the receptor. It is bound to the membrane. Within the two layers of the membrane are entities, separate from the receptor, called G-proteins

Learning & Memory (Behavior)
2nd outline

I. Definitions
A: Learning: a durable change in behavior or knowledge due to experience B: Memory: The means by which past experiences are drawn on to guide behavior or thoughts in the present

I. Definitions
A: Learning: a durable change in behavior or knowledge due to experience B: Memory: The means by which past experiences are drawn on to guide behavior or thoughts in the present

I. Definitions
A: Learning: a durable change in behavior or knowledge due to experience B: Memory: The means by which past experiences are drawn on to guide behavior or thoughts in the present

II. Some Types of Learning
A: Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning (involuntary responses) -learns a predictive relationship between two external stimuli; the presentation of the first specific stimulus predicts the imminent following presentation of the second specific stimulus Ex: Scientist rings a bell before bringing food to a dog repeatedly

1. Acquistion
• • • • the initial learning of the predictive relationship between stimuli Increase in saliva= acquisition; learning that you can have the food Unconditioned stimulus (already known thru inborn instincts): food UCS presents an Unconditioned response (already generates a response on its own): salivating • Predictive stimulus is called a conditioned stimulus dog acquires predictive relationship and elicits a conditioned response (expected opportunity to eat food) before the UCS is presented

2. Extinction
• Decrease in saliva=extinction • Ex: if the bell rings and no food comes saliva stops • Does not totally forget • If the same extinguished CS once again is paired with the UCS, the association is relearned even faster than it was initially

4. Stimulus Generalization/Discrimination
• Stimulus generalization=false alarm; dog hears keys & salivates • Stimulus Discrimination=animal can tell the difference between the bell and similar sounds

5. Higher Order Conditioning
a series of conditioned responses to a sucession of stimuli are chained together EG. image of ball (HCS) predicts bell (new UCS & HCR for new HCS) which predicts food (UCS) which cause salivation(UCR)

3. Spontaneous Recovery
• Further evidence that extinction is not erasure or simply forgetting • Ex: after the first day of extinction training, each successive day when the bell was presented alone there'd be some small amount salivation to the bell at the beginning of the session

Operant (Skinnerian) Conditioning (voluntary responses)
• The individual is performing operation on the world around it; that sets in motion some events; consequences influence behavior; the animal triggers the things it will be conditioned to • Some consequences appetitive: pleasant; likelihood of behavior increases vs. aversive: behavior decreases

B. Operant (Skinnerian) Conditioning (voluntary responses) Examples

1. Reinforcement vs. Omission/Punishment
• reinforcement increases the likelihood of a response. • Ex: positive reinforcement: Parent increases child cleaning their room by giving them $ when a child cleans his room • Ex: negative reinforcement: Parent spanks child until he starts cleaning room • To decrease behavior like cursing, use punishment, aversive stimulus • Not all punishment uses aversive stimulus; some use reward omission: appetitive stimulus is taken away

2. Schedules of Reinforcement
• DEF: rules or patterns governing reinforcement • determine the manipulation of either the number of responses (the ratio of responses) or the elapsed time since the last rewarded response (the interval of responses) • fixed ratio (FR) : reinforcement after a fixed number of responses have been made. • fixed interval (FI) : first response after one second • Raising the price, press lever more times in order to get reinforced; once he figures it out he has a response level; once you go to extinction there is a very quick termination of response • Because time delay is involved they do not get as angry or frustrated

2. Schedules of Reinforcement Graph

Observational Learning
• organism is not directly involved • The individual doing the learning doesn‟t have to go through the experience, they can learn by observing • Ex: Albert Vandura 60‟s Bobo doll: kids saw adult beating heavy doll, no one reprimanded her, little girl and boy did the same thing; study of agression in children

III. Memory Processes (Big Picture)

• A. Encoding
• involves forming a memory code • depth of processing : How well information is stored and retrieved • shallow processing : only physical structure of stimulus Ex: Were words bold or italic? • intermediate processing : What words sound like
Ex: do words rhyme?

• deep processing: complex Ex: can give definition • Deeper the encoding, better the storage and more cues for retrieval

• focuses mental resources on one element out of sensory memory and brings it into working memory (also called short-term memory). • Helps you focus your resources on something in particular.

3. Elaboration
• transfer into long-term memory (which can last for minutes to potentially for a lifetime) from short-term memory can be made easier by elaborative rehearsal
• Ex: I might organize it by the first three digits being the mathematically related (3 x 3 = 9) and because I've been a Dallas Cowboys fan since I was a small kid, I might organize the last four digits by the jersey numbers of two historic Dallas players, in this case Roger Staubach (# 12) and Tony Dorsett (#33). That would be a type of elaborative rehearsal. Therefore in retrieval, I would have those bits of well-known information (my elementary school multiplication tables and my childhood sports heroes) as retrieval cues to help me call up that phone number.

4. Imagery
• ?

B. Storage
• Retaining of information • Memory is moldable and can be strengthened or weakened during a process that occurs shortly after learning called consolidation

1. Sensory Memory
• Sensory memory is very high capacity and highly accurate, but it is very, very short lived, along the lines of one second.

Short term memory/working memory
• Working memory starts to decay noticeably after 30 seconds and lasts maximally about 3-5 minutes. • Maintenance rehearsal is the only way around this-recite something • 5-9 chucks of info you can keep in your memory at any given moment (7+/-2) • Limited time, capacity • To get from working memory to long term memory, you need elaborative rehearsal, connect what someone is saying to something you already need, this also provides retrieval queue, something to remind you of the new confusing memory

Long term Memory
• which can last for minutes to potentially for a lifetime from short-term memory can be made easier by elaborative rehearsal • durability of the information in long-term memory is determined by the consolidation process • consolidation can be improved by two things, repetition and perceived importance or interest

1. Flash Bulb Memories
• who cares

2.(Serial Position Effect) Primacy vs. Recency
• List of words is simply read or heard by a subject, and later experimenters ask for the subject to recall as many of the words as possible, what researchers report is that the first word and the last word are the most commonly and easily recalled, with words in the middle of the list most poorly recalled. • enhanced recall of the first word is called the primacy effect • enhanced recall of the last word in the list is called the recency effect • Greater recollective info with distributed practice

C. Retrieval
• memory must be accessed and brought back up to mind • can be compromised by emotional distress

1. Reinstating Context (cues/reminders)
• In forgetting the retrieval of a given memory is impaired by other, especially similar, memories. The information may be there waiting for a strong reminder or retrieval cue. But when retrieved it may also be contaminated or blurred by those similar memories which might have been interferring with its recall.

2. Reconstruction (misinformation effect)

IV. Forgetting
• complex and not entirely well understood process • One theory is that the memory simply decays, fades, is erased, or overwritten • was not deemed critical and was weakly consolidated and allowed to fade • A. Ineffective Encoding • B. Decay • C. Interference • D. Retrieval Failure • E. Motivated Forgetting

V. Learning & Memory (The Biology)
• Procedural memory system: actions, motor skills. You have to do them to learn them. Peripheral cortex and basal ganglia are important here • Declarative memory: FACTS things you can get verbally o Semantic memory: general knowledge of the world that is undated o Episodic memory: dated recollections of personal experiences

A. The Limbic System
• Temporal lobe: Hippocampus, Amygdala & Friends • is going to serve declarative memory especially episodic • episodic system learns fairly fast

B. The Frontal Cortex/Basal Ganglia Circuit
• Learning to do motor skills, creates habits without involving limbic system, habit system is very slow the two are independent • Loop the loop.

• glutamate is key- primary excitatory thing in your brain binds NMDA receptor MDMA can only be activated with massive stimulation of synapse, depending on how strong or important synapse is, when this happens calcium comes in and is changed on a permanent basis • Need NMDA for induction of LTP • AMPA receptor is involved in expression of LTP • Each time you induct LTP it gets easier and easier • Can slow down addiction by blocking NMDA receptors • Any stable long lasting change (addiction, memory, etc) is responsible by LTP

C. Long-Term Potentiation

• amygdala adds emotional content to the information that the hippocampus transfers to long-term memory and facilitates the transfer • perceived importance, interest or emotional arousal makes memory formation and consolidation easier • Memory modulation occurs largely as the consequence of a physiological and hormonal stress response to an event • hormonal responses and their consequences serve to mobilize the body to deal with a crisis • Inverted U-curve: too little emotional arousal as well as too much emotional arousal results in poorer memory retention or consolidation compared to a moderate level

E. Memory Modulation

The key components of the stress response are, in humans, the steroid stress hormone cortisol, the catecholamine stress hormone epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) and the rise in blood glucose triggered by epinephrine.

1. A little Stress isn't always a bad thing. • Too much stress scrambles signals and confuses them. Just relax, read, and

Good luck
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