MiCOM P63X

Transf. Differential Protection

Mathew Koshy
April 2002
Protection
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Transf. Differential Protection
Applications
Two Winding
Transformers
Unit Transformers
Three Winding
Transformers
Reactors
Generators
Ring Bus Fed
Windings
Auto Transformers
Motors
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Transf. Differential Protection
Main Functions
ANSI No. P631 P632 P633 P634
Differential protection 87 2 wind. 2 wind. 3 wind. 4 wind.
Restricted earth fault protection 87G – 2 3 3
Definite-time O/ C protection 50 2 2 3 3
Inverse-time O/ C protection 51 2 2 3 3
Thermal overload protection 49 1 1 2 2
Over/ undervoltage protection 27, 59 – 1 1 1
Over/ underfrequency protection 81 – 1 1 1
Overexcitation protection 24 – 1 1 1
Limit value monitoring 2 2 3 3
Programmable logic 1 1 1 1
P631 P632 P633 P634
Measuring inputs
Phase currents 2 x 3 2 x 3 3 x 3 4 x 3
Residual current or neutral-point current – 2 3 3
Voltage – 1 1 1
Binary inputs and outputs
Optical coupler inputs (per order) 4 4 to 10 4 to 16 4 to 10
Add. optical coupler inputs (optional) – 24 24 24
Output relays (per order) 8 to 14 8 to 22 8 to 30 8 to 22
Analogue inputs and outputs (optional)
0 to 20 mA input – 1 1 1
PT 100 input – 1 1 1
0 to 20 mA outputs – 2 2 2
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Transf. Differential Protection
Inputs and Outputs
DIFF
Differential Protection
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Functional Details
 3-system differential protection for transformers, generators and motors
 2, 3 or 4 bias inputs per phase
 Amplitude and vector group matching
 Zero sequence current filtering for each winding
 Triple-slope tripping characteristic
 Unrestrained instanteneous differential element
 Magnetizing inrush stabilization (second harmonic), with/without cross-blocking
 Overflux blocking (fifth harmonic)
 Through-fault stability with c.t. saturation detection
G G C
G G
G
TRIP
ALARM
OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
G
G
EDIT
= CLEAR
= ENTER
= READ
C
MiCOM
G G C
G G
G
G
G
TRIP
ALARM
OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
EDIT
= CLEAR
= ENTER
= READ
C
MiCOM
G G C
G G
G
G
G
TRIP
ALARM
OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
EDIT
= CLEAR
= ENTER
= READ
C
MiCOM
P631 P632 P633 P634
G G C
G G
G
TRIP
ALARM
OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
G
G
EDIT
= CLEAR
= ENTER
= READ
C
MiCOM
G G C
G G
G
TRIP
ALARM
OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
G
G
EDIT
= CLEAR
= ENTER
= READ
C
MiCOM
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Differential Protection
Main Features
A
B
C
Winding a
I
nom, CT, prim, a
V
nom, prim, a
V
nom, prim, b
S
ref, prim
= S
nom, prim, max
I
nom, CT, prim, b
A
B
C
Winding b
All you have to do: Simply set these nominal values!
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Differential Protection
Amplitude Matching
MiCOM 30 Series
Transf. Differential Protection
Amplitude Matching: Factor k
amp,z
C
B
A
C
B
A
N
a
N
b
k
amp,a
k
amp,b
a , x , amp
) rel (
a , x
(sec)
a , x
) prim (
a , x
I I I I ¬ ¬ ¬
) prim (
b , x
(sec)
b , x
) rel (
b , x b , x , amp
I I I I : : :
MiCOM 30 Series
Transf. Differential Protection
Amplitude Matching: Restrictions
z , x
) prim (
z , nom
) prim (
ref
) prim (
z , CT , nom
z , x
) prim (
z , ref
) prim (
z , CT , nom
z , x z , amp z , x , amp
I
V 3
S
I
I
I
I
I k I ·
·
= · = · =
The individual phase currents I
x,z
are multiplied by the amplitude-
matching factor k
amp,z
of the corresponding end z.
5 k
z , amp
s 3
k
k
1 max , amp
max , amp
s
÷
0.7 k
1 max , amp
>
÷
Restrictions:
DIFF Reference power Sref 38.1 MVA (0.1 ... 5000.0)
DIFF Ref. curr. Iref,a Not measured
DIFF Ref. curr. Iref,b Not measured
DIFF Ref. curr. Iref,c Not measured
DIFF Ref. curr. Iref,d Not measured

DIFF Matching fact. kam,a Not measured
DIFF Matching fact. kam,b Not measured
DIFF Matching fact. kam,c Not measured
DIFF Matching fact. kam,d Not measured
MiCOM 30 Series
Transf. Differential Protection
Amplitude Matching: Function Parameters
MAIN Inom C.T.prim.,end a 200 A (1 ... 50000)
MAIN Inom C.T.prim.,end b 200 A (1 ... 50000)
MAIN Inom C.T.prim.,end c 200 A (1 ... 50000)
MAIN Inom C.T.prim.,end d 200 A (1 ... 50000)

MAIN Vnom prim., end a 110.0 kV (0.1 ... 1500.0)
MAIN Vnom prim., end b 110.0 kV (0.1 ... 1500.0)
MAIN Vnom prim., end c 110.0 kV (0.1 ... 1500.0)
MAIN Vnom prim., end d 110.0 kV (0.1 ... 1500.0)
Calculated automatically by
the relay  read only!
MiCOM 30 Series
Transf. Differential Protection
Amplitude Matching: Example

Winding a
400 / 1 A
1000 / 1 A
1000 / 1 A
52.5 kV 10.5 kV
25 MVA
I
ref,prim,a
= 275 A
k
amp,a
= 1.455
S
ref,prim
= 25 MVA
I
ref,prim,b
= 1375 A
k
amp,b
= 0.727 k
amp,a
/ k
amp,b
= 2
Dy7
Winding b
A
B
C
Winding a
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or 11
A
B
C
Winding b
All you have to do: Simply set the vector group ID!
MiCOM 30 Series
Transf. Differential Protection
Vector Group Matching
MiCOM 30 Series
Transf. Differential Protection
Vector Group Matching
• No operation is carried out on the HV winding (Winding “a”)
w.r.t vector group matching

• Vector group matching done only on LV side (winding b/c) by
mathematical phasor operation

• How is vector group matching done on LV side?

 Each LV amp. matched current vector is added to the negative
of the trailing/leading current vector and then divided by \3
in case of odd groups
Group No. Phasor Operation
1
I vec,z = 1/
\
3 . (I amp,x,z – I amp,x+1,z)
3
I vec,z = 1/
\
3 . (I amp,x-1,z – I amp,x+1,z)
5
I vec,z = 1/
\
3 . (I amp,x-1,z – I amp,x,z)
7
I vec,z = 1/
\
3 . (I amp,x+1,z – I amp,x,z)
9
I vec,z = 1/
\
3 . (I amp,x+1,z – I amp,x-1,z)
11
I vec,z = 1/
\
3 . (I amp,x,z – I amp,x-1,z)
Meanings of abbreviations used

x
phase A, B or C resp.
amp
amplitude matched
x+1
cyclically trailing phase
vec
amplitude and vector group matched
x-1
cyclically leading phase


z
winding a, b, c or d resp.
Vector Group Matching for Odd
numbered Vector Groups
I
amp,A,a
I
amp,B,a
I
amp,C,a
I
amp,A,b
I
amp,B,b
I
amp,C,b
- I
amp,A,b
I
amp,C,b
- I
amp,A,b
1/ \3∙(I
amp,C,b
- I
amp,A,b
)
C
N
a
5∙30°
B
A
N
b
C
B
A
MiCOM 30 Series
Transf. Differential Protection
Vector Group Matching: Transformer Yd5
A
B
C
Winding a
with I
0
filtering without I
0
filtering
A
B
C
Winding b
All you have to do: Simply set „with„ or „without„!
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Differential Protection
Zero Sequence Current Filtering
Zero Sequence Filtering for Odd
numbered Vector Groups

• The mathematical phasor operations done on the LV side for
the vector group matching automatically filter out the
zero sequence current component present

 So for all D Y-n groups, no need to activate zero seq. filtering
 For all Y-n D groups, zero seq. filtering to be activated for the
HV winding only

• How is Zero Sequence current filtering done on HV side?

 I_
vec,y,z
= I_
amp,x,z
- I_
amp,zero,z


I_
amp,zero,z
= 1 . ( I_
amp,A,z
+ I_
amp,B,z
+ I_
amp,C,z
)


3
MiCOM 30 Series
Transf. Differential Protection
Vector Group Matching: Function Parameters
DIFF Vector grp. ends a-b 0 (0 ... 11)
DIFF Vector grp. ends a-c 0 (0 ... 11)
DIFF Vector grp. ends a-d 0 (0 ... 11)
Zero Sequence Current Filtering: Function Parameters
DIFF 0-seq. filt.a en.PS1 Yes
DIFF 0-seq. filt.b en.PS1 Yes
DIFF 0-seq. filt.c en.PS1 Yes
DIFF 0-seq. filt.d en.PS1 Yes
Parameter Subset 1
019.020 MAIN Inom C.T.prim.,end a 200 A (1 ... 50000)
019.021 MAIN Inom C.T.prim.,end b 200 A (1 ... 50000)
019.022 MAIN Inom C.T.prim.,end c 200 A (1 ... 50000)

019.017 MAIN Vnom prim., end a 110.0 kV (0.1 ... 1500.0)
019.018 MAIN Vnom prim., end b 110.0 kV (0.1 ... 1500.0)
019.019 MAIN Vnom prim., end c 110.0 kV (0.1 ... 1500.0)
019.016 DIFF Reference power Sref 38.1 MVA (0.1 ... 5000.0)
019.023 DIFF Ref. curr. Iref,a Not measured
019.024 DIFF Ref. curr. Iref,b Not measured
019.025 DIFF Ref. curr. Iref,c Not measured
004.105 DIFF Matching fact. kam,a Not measured
004.106 DIFF Matching fact. kam,b Not measured
004.127 DIFF Matching fact. kam,c Not measured

019.010 DIFF Vector grp. ends a-b 0 (0 ... 11)
019.011 DIFF Vector grp. ends a-c 0 (0 ... 11)

P630 Transformer Differential Protection
Differential Protection (DIFF)

Amplitude and Vector Group Matching: Relay Settings
Calculated
automatically by
the relay  read
only!
Tripping Characteristic

MiCOM 30 Series
Transf. Differential Protection
Definition of I
d
and I
R



+ + + · =
÷ · =
+ + + =
c , y , vec b , y , vec a , y , vec y , R
b , y , vec a , y , vec y , R
c , y , vec b , y , vec a , y , vec y , d
I I I
2
1
I
I I
2
1
I
I I I I
Differential current
Amplitude and vector group
matched currents from
ends a, b, ...

Restraining current

for 2 ends

for > 2 ends
for measuring
system y
(1, 2 or 3 resp.)
MiCOM 30 Series
Transf. Differential Protection
Tripping Characteristic
1 2 3 4
1
2
0
I
d
I
R
Load line
for single-end infeed
I
d
>
m
1
m
2
I
R,m2
Basic threshould value I
d
>, slope m
1
,
second knee point I
R,m2
and slope m
2
are settable.
MiCOM 30 Series
Transf. Differential Protection
Tripping Characteristic: First Section
1 2 3 4
1
2
0
I
d
I
R
Load line
for single-end infeed
Magnetizing current
characteristic
I
d
>
First section of
tripping characteristic
The basic threshold value I
d
> takes into account the magnetizing
current of the transformer.
MiCOM 30 Series
Transf. Differential Protection
Tripping Characteristic: Second Section
1 2 3 4
1
2
0
I
d
I
R
Load line
for single-end infeed
I
d
>
Transformation error
characteristics
for two or three
current transformer sets
Second section of
tripping characteristic
m
1
First knee point of
tripping characteristic
The slope m1 should correspond to the cumulative total error of
the participating CT sets.
MiCOM 30 Series
Transf. Differential Protection
In case of HV on-load tap changer device:
• Amplitude matching needs to be done for a mean nominal
voltage on HV side (a).
- Therefore, set : V
nom.prim.,a
= V
nom,a,min
x V
nom,a,max

- Also, m1 setting should be increased by a factor of:
I
nom,(p),a,max
- I
nom,(p),a,mid

1 . (I
nom,(p),a,max
+ I
nom,(p),a,mid
)
2
R
1 2 3 4
1
2
0
I
d
I
Load line
for single-end infeed
I
d
>
m
1
Third section of
tripping characteristic
m
2
Second knee point of
tripping characteristic
I
R,m2
•The second knee point must be set in accordance with the max.
possible load current (4.Iref considered max.; like when a parallel X„frmr
has failed for P634) ;
•m2 to be set high (70%) for through fault stability
Tripping Characteristic: Third
Section

MiCOM 30 Series
Transf. Differential Protection
Tripping Characteristic: Function Parameters
DIFF Enable PS1 No

DIFF Idiff> PS1 0.20 Iref (0.10 ... 2.50)
DIFF Idiff>> PS1 15 Iref (5 ... 30)
DIFF Idiff>>> PS1 30 Iref (5 ... 30)
DIFF m1 PS1 0.3 (0.2 ... 1.5)
DIFF m2 PS1 0.7 (0.4 ... 1.5)
DIFF IR,m2 PS1 4.0 Iref (1.5 ... 10.0)

DIFF Op.mode harm.bl. PS1 Not phase-selective
DIFF RushI(2f0)/I(f0) PS1 20 % (10 ... 50)

DIFF Overflux.bl. en. PS1 No
DIFF OverI(5f0)/(f0) PS1 20 % (10 ... 80)
Parameter Subset 1
1 2 3 4
1
2
0
I
d
I
R
Load line
for single-end infeed
I
d
>
m
1
m
2
I
R,m2
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Differential Protection
Characteristic Equations:
• I
d
= I
d
> ; Area I
• I
d
= m1. ( I
R
- 0.5 I
d
>) + I
d
> ; Area II
• I
d
= m2. I
R
+ I
d
> . (1 - 0.5.m1 ) + 4.(m1-m2) ; Area III
I
II
III
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Differential Protection
High-set Differential thresholds:
Restrained Highset:
• Above the adjustable threshold, Idiff>>, relay trips
irrespective of either the 2nd harmonic or the overfluxing
restraint blocks

Unrestrained Highset:
• Above the adjustable threshold, Idiff>>>, relay trips
irrespective of restraining current and the saturation
discriminator
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Differential Protection
Inrush stabilisation
• Since high inrush charging current flows only on the
connected side, important to stabilize the diff. element

• If ratio of I(2xf
0
) / I(f
0
) exceeds a set value in atleast one
of the phases, tripping is blocked

• No blocking if diff. Current exceeds Idiff>>

MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Differential Protection
Overfluxing restraint
• During overexcitation of transformer, core saturation sets
in and more magnetizing current is drawn; may lead to
maltripping.

• Fifth harmonic restraint facility provided

• If ratio of I(5xf
0
) / I(f
0
) exceeds a set value in atleast one
of the phases, tripping is blocked

• No blocking if diff. Current exceeds Idiff>>

Saturation Discriminator
Stability with Saturated C.T.‟s
ZA0912B
i1
i2
id
Inhibit
pulses
id
with inhibit

• No blocking if diff. Current exceeds Idiff>>>

Saturation Discriminator Operation
with Saturated C.T.‟s
ZA0912B
i2
id
Inhibit
pulses
With inhibit
id
REF_1
Ground Differential Protection
REF_2 REF_3
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Functional Details
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Ground Differential Protection
• Can be applied to Xfmr windings with grounded neutral
point where a C.T. in neutral to gnd. Path is available

• One Ground diff. Protn available per Xfmr winding

• Based on comparing the Vector sum of phase currents, I
N
with the Neutral-point current I
Y


• The Diff. Protn. Applies under the condition of uniformly
defined current arrows relative to the Xfmr winding.
 Both current arrows point either towards the winding or
away from it



MiCOM 30 Series
Ground Differential Protection
Amplitude Matching:
I
ref,N,z
= S
ref

\3.V
nom,z

k
am,N,z
= I
nom,z

I
ref,N,z

k
am,Y,z
= I
nom,Y,z

I
ref,N,z

• where
am : amplitude matched, z : winding
Inom,z : primary nominal current of the Main C.T.
Inom,Y,z : primary nominal current of the Neutral C.T.

= 0.2
I
d,G
/I
ref
m = 1.005
1 1.5 2 0.5
0.5
1
1.5
I
R,G
/I
ref
Fault current (internal fault)characteristic
for transient saturation of the main C.T.‟s
2
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Ground Differential Protection
Tripping Characteristic
Characteristic equation:

G R, G d, G , d
I +m > I = I ·
Definition of I
d,G
and I
R,G
:

{ }
{ }
C B A N , amp G , R
Y Y , amp C B A N , amp G , d
I , I , I k I
I k I , I , I k I
E · =
· + E · =
I
d,G
>

r ef
I
Ground Differential Protection
Operation- External Faults
Winding a Winding b
A
B
C
A
B
C
I
AE
I
AE
I
N
=E(I
A
+I
B
+I
C
) =- I
AE


I
Y
=+ I
AE

Therefore : I
d,G
= 0
I
R,G
= I
AE

P63X

Ground Differential Protection
Operation- Internal Faults
Winding a Winding b
A
B
C
A
B
C
I
AE,p
I
AE,n
I
N
=E(I
A
+I
B
+I
C
) =+ I
AE


I
Y
=+ I
AE
(Assuming I
AE,p
=

I
AE,n
= I
AE
)

Therefore : I
d,G
= 2. I
AE

I
R,G
= I
AE

P63X

DTOC1
Definite-Time Overcurrent Protection
DTOC2 DTOC3
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Functional Details
 Definite-time overcurrent protection, three-stage, phase-selective
 Each function group (DTOC1, DTOC2, DTOC3) is freely assignable to a winding
 Virtual winding may be defined for summation of currents from two real windings
(application on two breakers in a ring bus or breaker-and-a-half configuration)
 3 separate measuring systems for phase currents, negative-sequence current
and residual current
All 3 measuring systems operate independently of each other:
 Settable operate delay per stage
 Sequence of all operate delays can be blocked
– through appropriately configured binary signal inputs or
– per selection matrix via a binary signal input or
– per programmable logic (LOGIC)
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Definite-Time O/C Protection
Main Features
IDMT1
Inverse-Time Overcurrent Protection
IDMT2 IDMT3
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Functional Details
 Inverse-time overcurrent protection, single-stage, phase-selective
 Each function group (IDMT1, IDMT2, IDMT3) is freely assignable to a winding
 Virtual winding may be defined for summation of currents from two real windings
(application on two breakers in a ring bus or breaker-and-a-half configuration)
 3 separate measuring systems for phase currents, negative-sequence current
and residual current
All 3 measuring systems operate independently of each other:
 Choice of 12 different tripping time characteristics
 Accumulation of intermittend startings by means of a hold-time logic
 Sequence of all operate delays can be blocked
– through appropriately configured binary signal inputs or
– per selection matrix via a binary signal input or
– per programmable logic (LOGIC)
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Inverse-Time O/C Protection
Main Features
THRM1
Thermal Overload Protection
THRM2
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Functional Details
V< >
Over-/Undervoltage Protection
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Functional Details
 Definite-time overvoltage protection, two-stage

 Definite-time undervoltage protection, two-stage:


 Sequence of all operate delays can be blocked
– through appropriately configured binary signal inputs or
– per selection matrix via a binary signal input or
– per programmable logic (LOGIC)
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Over-/Undervoltage Protection
Main Features
f< >
Over-/Underfrequency Protection
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Functional Details
 Over-/underfrequncy protection, four-stage

All four stages operate independently of each other:

 Operation modes:
– Over-/underfrequency monitoring
– Over-/underfrequency monitoring in conjunction with differential frequency
gradient monitoring (df/dt) for system decoupling applications
– Over-/underfrequency monitoring in conjunction with average frequency
gradient monitoring (Af/At) for load shedding applications
 Settable operate delay
 Sequence of all operate delays can be blocked
– through appropriately configured binary signal inputs or
– per selection matrix via a binary signal input or
– per programmable logic (LOGIC)
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Over-/Underfrequency Protection
Main Features
V/ f
Overexcitation Protection
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Functional Details
 V/f ratio based measurement

 Alarm stage V/f> with definite time delay

 Trip stage V/f>> with inverse time characteristic
– Characteristic defined by 12 settable value pairs
– Cooling time of thermal replica settable

 Trip stage V/f>>> with definite time delay

 Sequence of all operate delays can be blocked
– through appropriately configured binary signal inputs or
– per selection matrix via a binary signal input or
– per programmable logic (LOGIC)
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Overexcitation Protection
Main Features
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Overexcitation Protection
Tripping Characteristic
V/ f
t
1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60
V
nom
/ f
nom
1
10
100
V/ f> > >
V/ f> >
...
...
LOGIC
Programmable Logic
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Functional Details
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Programmable Logic
Embedding of Programmable Logic

Configuration:


INP
LOC
PC
COMM1
COMM2
Fixed Logic:

DIST, IDMT, DIFF, ...

Configuration:

OUTP
LED
LOC
PC
COMM1
COMM2
Control Inputs Trip and Signals Functions
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Programmable Logic
Embedding of Programmable Logic
Programmable Logic:

LOGIC

Configuration:


INP
LOC
PC
COMM1
COMM2
Fixed Logic:

DIST, IDMT, DIFF, ...

Configuration:

OUTP
LED
LOC
PC
COMM1
COMM2
Control Inputs Trip and Signals Functions
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Transf. Differential Protection
Hardware

P631 P632 P633 P634
Measuring inputs
Phase currents 2 x 3 2 x 3 3 x 3 4 x 3
Residual current or neutral-point current – 2 3 3
Voltage – 1 1 1
Binary inputs and outputs
Optical coupler inputs (per order) 4 4 to 10 4 to 16 4 to 10
Add. optical coupler inputs (optional) – 24 24 24
Output relays (per order) 8 to 14 8 to 22 8 to 30 8 to 22
Analogue inputs and outputs (optional)
0 to 20 mA input – 1 1 1
PT 100 input – 1 1 1
0 to 20 mA outputs – 2 2 2
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Transf. Differential Protection
Inputs and Outputs
G G C
G G
G
G
G
TRIP
ALARM
OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
EDIT
= CLEAR
= ENTER
= READ
C
MiCOM
G G C
G G
G
G
G
TRIP
ALARM
OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
EDIT
= CLEAR
= ENTER
= READ
C
MiCOM
G G C
G G
G
G
G
TRIP
ALARM
OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
EDIT
= CLEAR
= ENTER
= READ
C
MiCOM
G G C
G G
G
TRIP
ALARM
OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
G
G
EDIT
= CLEAR
= ENTER
= READ
C
MiCOM
G G C
G G
G
TRIP
ALARM
OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
G
G
EDIT
= CLEAR
= ENTER
= READ
C
MiCOM
G G C
G G
G
G
G
TRIP
ALARM
OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
EDIT
= CLEAR
= ENTER
= READ
C
MiCOM
G G C
G G
G
G
G
TRIP
ALARM
OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
EDIT
= CLEAR
= ENTER
= READ
C
MiCOM
G G C
G G
G
TRIP
ALARM
OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
G
G
EDIT
= CLEAR
= ENTER
= READ
C
MiCOM
P631
G G C
G G
G
TRIP
ALARM
OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
G
G
EDIT
= CLEAR
= ENTER
= READ
C
MiCOM
P632 P633 P634
Screw Terminals for Pin Lugs
Screw Terminals for Ring Lugs
Models*
*Both Flush & Surface Mounted Case Designs available
40TE
84TE
P631 P632 P633 P634
Measuring inputs
Phase currents 2 x 3 2 x 3 3 x 3 4 x 3
Residual current or neutral-point current – 2 3 3
Voltage – 1 1 1
Binary inputs and outputs
Optical coupler inputs (per order) 4 4 to 10 4 to 16 4 to 10
Add. optical coupler inputs (optional) – 24 24 24
Output relays (per order) 8 to 14 8 to 22 8 to 30 8 to 22
Analogue inputs and outputs (optional)
0 to 20 mA input – 1 1 1
PT 100 input – 1 1 1
0 to 20 mA outputs – 2 2 2
Inputs and Outputs
Power Supply Module Processor Module
Communication Module
Transformer Module

:

O
p
t
i
o
n
P A
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
V
4*I
8*O
X
6*O
X
Y
4*I
24*I
X
6*I
8*O
T
4*J
T
4*J
1*U
Analog I/O Module
Binary I/O Module
 MODULAR
P630
Hardware - Example (1)

Module Location Diagram for P632 in Case 40 TE (Pin Terminals)
P631 P632 P633 P634
Measuring inputs
Phase currents 2 x 3 2 x 3 3 x 3 4 x 3
Residual current or neutral-point current – 2 3 3
Voltage – 1 1 1
Binary inputs and outputs
Optical coupler inputs (per order) 4 4 to 10 4 to 16 4 to 10
Add. optical coupler inputs (optional) – 24 24 24
Output relays (per order) 8 to 14 8 to 22 8 to 30 8 to 22
Analogue inputs and outputs (optional)
0 to 20 mA input – 1 1 1
PT 100 input – 1 1 1
0 to 20 mA outputs – 2 2 2
P631 P632 P633 P634
Measuring inputs
Phase currents 2 x 3 2 x 3 3 x 3 4 x 3
Residual current or neutral-point current – 2 3 3
Voltage – 1 1 1
Binary inputs and outputs
Optical coupler inputs (per order) 4 4 to 10 4 to 16 4 to 10
Add. optical coupler inputs (optional) – 24 24 24
Output relays (per order) 8 to 14 8 to 22 8 to 30 8 to 22
Analogue inputs and outputs (optional)
0 to 20 mA input – 1 1 1
PT 100 input – 1 1 1
0 to 20 mA outputs – 2 2 2
Inputs and Outputs
P630
Hardware Example (2)

Module Location Diagram for P633 in Case 84 TE (Pin Terminals)

:

O
p
t
i
o
n

Processor Module
Communication Module
Transformer Module
Power Supply Module
Binary I/O Module
Analog I/O Module
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
11
11
12
12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
P A T
4*J
1*U
T
4*J
T
4*J
X
6*I
8*O
X
6*I
8*O
X
24*I
Y
4*I
V
4*I
8*O
X
6*O
P630
Serial Interfaces


 Front PC RS 232 serial interface for local comm. using
MiCOM S1

 Rear Ports:
Optional 2 remote Comm. ports :
either RS 485 interface-twisted copper wire connection OR
Fibre Optic interface - FO cable connector

 An optional IRIG-B interface is available for time
synchronisation








P630
Connections


 Current transformer connections to be given in accordance with the
standard terminal connection diagram indicated on the type
identification label

 Example: P634 -74991196-301-401-601-801
Diagram: P634.401

 It is essential that the grounding configuration shown in the diagram be
followed. If a connection is in opposition, this can be taken into account
in the settings at:
P63X/Parameters/Function/Global/Main/Conn meas.circ. IP,a/b/c/d








P631 P632 P633 P634
Measuring inputs
Phase currents 2 x 3 2 x 3 3 x 3 4 x 3
Residual current or neutral-point current – 2 3 3
Voltage – 1 1 1
Binary inputs and outputs
Optical coupler inputs (per order) 4 4 to 10 4 to 16 4 to 10
Add. optical coupler inputs (optional) – 24 24 24
Output relays (per order) 8 to 14 8 to 22 8 to 30 8 to 22
Analogue inputs and outputs (optional)
0 to 20 mA input – 1 1 1
PT 100 input – 1 1 1
0 to 20 mA outputs – 2 2 2
MiCOM P631/632/633/634
Transf. Differential Protection
Inputs and Outputs
G G
C
G G
G
G

G
TRIP
ALARM
OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
EDIT
= CLEAR
= ENTER
= READ
C
MiCOM
Front Face
H5
H16
H17
H1
H4
X6
LED interpretations 1
 LED- “ALARM” :
Meaning : Internal fault detected OR
Relay functioning hindrances like:
Calculated reference currents/matching factors not
within permissible range or
amplitude matching factor conditions not satisfied

Action from operator: Read out the “Monitoring Signal Memory”
: P63X/Operations/Op.data.Rec./MT_RC
- Then clear the Mon. Signal Memory
- Try a Cold Restart
 (Full list of possible SFMON signals given in Guide, Chap. 10,
(Trouble shooting)

LED interpretations 2
 LED- “OUT OF SERVICE” :
Meaning :
(1) Output relay has been blocked by user:
Par/Func/Glob/OUTP/“Output.rel.block USER” “Yes” .

(2) Device has been disabled by user:
Par/Func/Glob/MAIN/ “Protection Enabled” “No” .

(3) Trip command has been blocked by user:
Par/Func/Glob/MAIN/ “Trip command block.USER” “Yes” .

(4) SFMON has detected an internal fault:
( ALARM LED also lights up and output assigned to “Blocked/Faulty
is energised )



Local Control Panel Operations
Following tasks can be handled from the LOC :

 Readout and editing of settings
 Readout of cyclically updated measured Operating data &
Logic state signals
 Readout of operating data logs and monitoring signal logs
 Readout of event logs and fault measured data after overload
situations and faults
 Resetting of device and triggering of additional control functions
designed to support testing and commissioning tasks






Local Control Panel Operations
 To enter the EDIT mode :

(1) Activate the Global Change-enabling function:
Oper/Cntrl&Test/LOC/“Par change enable” “Yes” .

(2) To activate the change, enter the password .

(3) For some functions, to edit the settings we need to disable the
device: Par/Func/Glob/MAIN/ “Protection Enabled” =“No” .




Local Control Panel
Operations
COLD RESTART
 Many problems may occur (like Alarm LED) due to the fact that the
setting status of the device makes it difficult for the user to know what‟s
going on !

In such cases, perform a cold restart:
- This causes the device to reboot, all settings to revert to default values
and all records to be cleared
- Prior to performing a cold restart, disable the protection:

P63X/Par/Func/Glob/MAIN/Protection Enabled = “No” .
P63X/Oper/Ctrl&Test/MAIN/Cold Restart = “Execute” .


Memory Readouts
The following memories are available:

 Operating data memory: Oper/Rec/OP_RC
- contains stored signals of actions that occur during operation such
as enabling or disabling of a function

 Monitoring Signal memory: Oper/Rec/MT_RC
- a signal entry due to internal fault detected by SFMON function or a
setting configuration that hinders flawless functioning of the device

 Event Memory: Events/Rec/FT_RC : fault memories 1 to 8
Events/Rec/OL_RC : overload memories 1 to 8


Fault Logging, Fault Data
Acquisition & Fault Recording

 Fault Measured Data (FT_DA):
- Fault duration
- Fault currents - phase and residual values of each winding
- Differential and restraining currents on all 3 phases
- Per unit Second and fifth harmonic levels of the differential current
- Maximum 8 records
 Fault Recorded Data (FT_RC) (Disturbance records):
- Phase currents of all four ends of the transformer
- Residual current measured at the Neutral C.T.
- Voltage (1|)
- Max 8 records, 16.4 sec.
 Fault Logging:
- device stores protection signals logged during a fault
- Maximum 8 faults, 200 signals on each fault incident

Configuring & Enabling of
Function Groups
 In order to enable a function group (say Differential):

(1)Configure the desired function:
P63X/Par/Config/DIFF/Enable =Yes

(2)Enable the desired function:
P63X/Par/Func/General/DIFF/General Enable.USER =Yes

(3)Activate the desired function in the parameter subset :
P63X/Par/Func/Par.Subset 1/DIFF/Enable =Yes
Some tips on configuring the
Tripping Outputs
 NOTE: Always use a “Trip command” for operating the trip coil
Procedure:
(1)Configure the trip command:
Example: P63X/Par/Func/Global/MAIN/Fct.assign.Trip.cmd.1=
#01 DIFF Trip signal OR #02 Manual Trip Signal

(2)Configure the output relay:
Recommended: P63X/Par/Conf/OUTP/ Fct.assign.K2001 =
Gen.Trip command 1

Protection

MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Transf. Differential Protection
Applications
Two Winding Transformers Unit Transformers Three Winding Transformers

Generators

Motors

Auto Transformers Ring Bus Fed Windings

Reactors

2 wind. . Differential Protection Main Functions AN SI N o. 3 wind. Differential protection Restricted earth fault protection Definite-time O/ C protection Inverse-time O/ C protection Thermal overload protection Over/ undervoltage protection Over/ underfrequency protection Overexcitation protection Limit value monitoring Programmable logic 87 87G 50 51 49 27. 59 81 24 P631 – 2 2 1 – – – 2 1 P632 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 P633 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 3 1 P634 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 3 1 2 wind. 4 wind.MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Transf.

optical coupler inputs (optional) Output relays (per order) Analogue inputs and outputs (optional) 0 to 20 mA input PT 100 input 0 to 20 mA outputs – – – 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 4 – 8 to 14 4 to 10 24 8 to 22 4 to 16 24 8 to 30 4 to 10 24 8 to 22 2x3 – – 2x3 2 1 3x3 3 1 4x3 3 1 P632 P633 P634 . Differential Protection Inputs and Outputs P631 Measuring inputs Phase currents Residual current or neutral-point current Voltage Binary inputs and outputs Optical coupler inputs (per order) Add.MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Transf.

MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Functional Details Differential Protection DIFF .

generators and motors 2. 3 or 4 bias inputs per phase Amplitude and vector group matching Zero sequence current filtering for each winding Triple-slope tripping characteristic Unrestrained instanteneous differential element Magnetizing inrush stabilization (second harmonic).MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Differential Protection Main Features MiCOM TRIP ALARM OUT OF SERVICE HEALTHY EDIT C = = = CLEAR READ ENTER G C G G MiCOM MiCOM MiCOM G TRIP ALARM OUT OF SERVICE HEALTHY EDIT TRIP ALARM OUT OF SERVICE HEALTHY EDIT = = = CLEAR READ ENTER TRIP ALARM OUT OF SERVICE HEALTHY EDIT C G C G C = = = CLEAR READ ENTER G C G C = = CLEAR READ ENTER G C G = = ENTER G G G G G G G G G G G G G P631          P632 P633 P634 3-system differential protection for transformers. with/without cross-blocking Overflux blocking (fifth harmonic) Through-fault stability with c. saturation detection G G G G G MiCOM TRIP ALARM OUT OF SERVICE HEALTHY EDIT G C = = CLEAR READ G C G G G G G .t.

prim. CT. prim. b Sref. prim. max All you have to do: Simply set these nominal values! . prim. prim. prim = Snom. b Inom. a Vnom. a Vnom. CT.MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Differential Protection Amplitude Matching Winding a C C B B A A Winding b Inom.

Differential Protection Amplitude Matching: Factor kamp.a  I(sec) x .a kamp.b  I(sec) x .b I(prim) x .b  I(prim) x .MiCOM 30 Series Transf.a  I(rel ) x .a Iamp .x .b  I(rel ) x .b .z Na C C B B A A Nb kamp.a  Iamp .x .

z of the corresponding end z.z Restrictions: k amp .max 1 k amp .z  Ix.max k amp .x.z ) (prim) Inom.CT.7 The individual phase currents Ix.z) Iamp . Differential Protection Amplitude Matching: Restrictions (prim) Inom. .MiCOM 30 Series Transf.z  5 3 k amp .max 1  0.z  k amp .z (prim Iref .z (prim Sref ) (prim 3  Vnom.z   I x .CT.z   I x .z are multiplied by the amplitudematching factor kamp.

1 MVA (0..c Ref.0) Reference power Sref Ref. . Iref.0 kV kV kV kV (0.prim..0) 1500. Iref.0) 1500. . curr..a Ref.T.. 50000) 50000) 50000) 50000) MAIN MAIN MAIN MAIN DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF Vnom Vnom Vnom Vnom prim.0 110. curr..1 (0. .prim.T..T.0 110. fact. prim.b Ref.prim.1 (0. curr. kam. Differential Protection Amplitude Matching: Function Parameters MAIN MAIN MAIN MAIN Inom Inom Inom Inom C. 5000. . prim.T. .end C. Iref...0) 1500.. .....b kam.1 .d Matching Matching Matching Matching fact.prim.end C.a kam. prim. curr.c kam....end C.... fact. 1500..MiCOM 30 Series Transf...1 (0. Iref.0 110..d 38.end a b c d 200 200 200 200 A A A A (1 (1 (1 (1 . fact..0) Not measured Not measured Not measured Not measured Calculated automatically by the relay  read only! Not measured Not measured Not measured Not measured .. end end end end a b c d 110..1 .

b = 0.prim = 25 MVA I ref.prim.5 kV 1000 / 1 A 25 MVA Sref.455 k amp.b = 2 I ref.MiCOM 30 Series Transf.a = 275 A k amp.b = 1375 A k amp. Differential Protection Amplitude Matching: Example Winding a Winding b 1000 / 1 A 400 / 1 A 52.prim.727 .a / k amp.a = 1.5 kV Dy7 10.

Differential Protection Vector Group Matching Winding a C C B B A A Winding b 0. 5. 9. 6. 3. 10 or 11 All you have to do: Simply set the vector group ID! . 1. 4.MiCOM 30 Series Transf. 7. 8. 2.

MiCOM 30 Series Transf. matched current vector is added to the negative of the trailing/leading current vector and then divided by 3 in case of odd groups . Differential Protection Vector Group Matching • No operation is carried out on the HV winding (Winding “a”) w.t vector group matching • Vector group matching done only on LV side (winding b/c) by mathematical phasor operation • How is vector group matching done on LV side?  Each LV amp.r.

cyclically trailing phase cyclically leading phase z winding a.z – I amp.z – I amp.z – I amp.z = 1/3 .z) I vec.x.x-1. . (I amp.x.x+1. b.z) I vec.z) I vec. (I amp.x-1.x-1.z) I vec.x+1. (I amp. (I amp.z = 1/3 .x.z = 1/3 .x+1.x-1.z) I vec.z) Meanings of abbreviations used x amp vec amplitude matched amplitude and vector group matched x+1 x-1 phase A.z – I amp.Vector Group Matching for Odd numbered Vector Groups Group No.x+1.z – I amp.z = 1/3 . 1 3 5 7 9 11 Phasor Operation I vec.z – I amp.x.z = 1/3 .z = 1/3 . (I amp. B or C resp. (I amp. c or d resp.

b) Iamp.b .Iamp.b 5∙30° Iamp.C.A.b .A.a .C.b Iamp.Iamp.a Nb C B A 1/ 3∙(Iamp.A.A. Differential Protection Vector Group Matching: Transformer Yd5 Na C B A Iamp.a Iamp.MiCOM 30 Series Transf.B.C.A.b .b Iamp.Iamp.b Iamp.B.C.

MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Differential Protection Zero Sequence Current Filtering Winding a C C B B A A Winding b with I0 filtering without I0 filtering All you have to do: Simply set „with„ or „without„! .

I_amp.z + I_amp.zero.z ) 3 . zero seq.A.y.x.z + I_amp.z .z I_amp. filtering to be activated for the HV winding only How is Zero Sequence current filtering done on HV side?   •  I_vec. ( I_amp.z = I_amp. filtering For all Y-n D groups.zero.B. no need to activate zero seq.Zero Sequence Filtering for Odd numbered Vector Groups • The mathematical phasor operations done on the LV side for the vector group matching automatically filter out the zero sequence current component present So for all D Y-n groups.z = 1 .C.

11) Zero Sequence Current Filtering: Function Parameters DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF 0-seq..a filt.PS1 en. filt. ends a-c Vector grp. 0-seq.PS1 en.MiCOM 30 Series Transf.d en..PS1 en..b filt. 11) (0 .c filt.PS1 Yes Yes Yes Yes Parameter Subset 1 . Differential Protection Vector Group Matching: Function Parameters DIFF DIFF DIFF Vector grp... ends a-b Vector grp. 11) (0 . ends a-d 0 0 0 (0 .. 0-seq. 0-seq.

.c Vector grp.0 kV 110.016 019. 1500.106 004. kam...020 MAIN 019. curr. end b Vnom prim.end b Inom C. 5000.1 .0) (0..end c Vnom prim.prim.1 MVA (0.a Ref.. 11) (0 .. ends a-b Vector grp.b Ref.017 MAIN 019.010 DIFF 019.0 kV (1 .. 50000) (0. 1500.0) 38.c Matching fact.018 MAIN 019.011 DIFF .023 019. 50000) (1 .0) Not measured Not measured Calculated Not measured automatically by Not measured the relay  read Not measured only! Not measured 0 0 (0 .127 DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF Inom C.019 MAIN 019.T.T.. end a Vnom prim.b Matching fact.T. curr..prim. end c Reference power Sref Ref.. curr. 11) 019.a Matching fact... Iref...025 004...P630 Transformer Differential Protection Differential Protection (DIFF) Amplitude and Vector Group Matching: Relay Settings 019.1 . 1500.021 MAIN 019.1 ... kam. ends a-c 200 A 200 A 200 A 110.. Iref...024 019.end a Inom C.0) (0.1 .022 MAIN 019.prim.. kam.0 kV 110. Iref. 50000) (1 .105 004...

Tripping Characteristic .

.y  IR .b 2 1   Ivec.y.a  Ivec.c   1  Ivec.) Amplitude and vector group matched currents from ends a.y   for measuring system y (1. 2 or 3 resp.y. .a  Ivec..MiCOM 30 Series Transf.y.c   2 for 2 ends Restraining current for > 2 ends IR .a  Ivec. Differential Protection Definition of Id and IR Differential current Id.b  Ivec. b.y.y..y.y  Ivec.y.y.b  Ivec.

MiCOM 30 Series Transf. Differential Protection
Tripping Characteristic
Id Load line for single-end infeed

2 m2

1

m1 IR,m2 1 2 3 4 IR

Id> 0

Basic threshould value Id>, slope m1, second knee point IR,m2 and slope m2 are settable.

MiCOM 30 Series Transf. Differential Protection
Tripping Characteristic: First Section
Id Load line for single-end infeed

2

1

First section of tripping characteristic

Magnetizing current characteristic

Id > 0 1 2 3 4 IR

The basic threshold value Id> takes into account the magnetizing current of the transformer.

MiCOM 30 Series Transf. Differential Protection
Tripping Characteristic: Second Section
Id Load line for single-end infeed Second section of tripping characteristic

2 First knee point of tripping characteristic m1

1

Id> 0 1 2 3

Transformation error characteristics for two or three current transformer sets 4 IR

The slope m1 should correspond to the cumulative total error of the participating CT sets.

(p). .a.Also..(p).min x Vnom.Inom.a.prim.max + Inom. Differential Protection In case of HV on-load tap changer device: • Amplitude matching needs to be done for a mean nominal voltage on HV side (a).(p).max .MiCOM 30 Series Transf.a.(p). (Inom.a.a.Therefore.max . set : Vnom.mid) 2 .a. m1 setting should be increased by a factor of: Inom.mid 1 .a = Vnom.

m2 1 Id > 0 2 3 4 IR •The second knee point must be set in accordance with the max.Iref considered max.. like when a parallel X„frmr has failed for P634) . •m2 to be set high (70%) for through fault stability .Tripping Characteristic: Third Section Id Load line for single-end infeed Third section of tripping characteristic Second knee point of tripping characteristic 2 m2 1 m1 I R. possible load current (4.

3 0.7 4...5 . Differential Protection Tripping Characteristic: Function Parameters DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF DIFF Enable Idiff> Idiff>> Idiff>>> m1 m2 IR...5) (0.4 . 2.. 30) (0.. 1. 30) (5 .bl.. en. PS1 RushI(2f0)/I(f0) PS1 Overflux.. 50) No 20 % (10 ..bl.MiCOM 30 Series Transf..5) (1.10 .0 Iref (0.....50) (5 . PS1 OverI(5f0)/(f0) PS1 Not phase-selective 20 % (10 . 1.m2 PS1 PS1 PS1 PS1 PS1 PS1 PS1 No 0.0) Op.2 . 10...20 Iref 15 Iref 30 Iref 0.mode harm. 80) Parameter Subset 1 .

IR + Id> . (1 .0. Area I .m1 ) + 4.MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Differential Protection Characteristic Equations: Id Load line for single-end infeed 2 m2 III 1 II m1 I d> 0 I 1 2 3 4 IR. ( IR .0. Area II .5 Id>) + Id> • Id = m2. Area III .(m1-m2) .m2 IR • Id = I d> • Id = m1.5.

Idiff>>>. Idiff>>. relay trips irrespective of either the 2nd harmonic or the overfluxing restraint blocks Unrestrained Highset: • Above the adjustable threshold. relay trips irrespective of restraining current and the saturation discriminator .MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Differential Protection High-set Differential thresholds: Restrained Highset: • Above the adjustable threshold.

tripping is blocked • No blocking if diff. Current exceeds Idiff>> .MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Differential Protection Inrush stabilisation • Since high inrush charging current flows only on the connected side. important to stabilize the diff. element • If ratio of I(2xf0) / I(f0) exceeds a set value in atleast one of the phases.

core saturation sets in and more magnetizing current is drawn. Fifth harmonic restraint facility provided If ratio of I(5xf0) / I(f0) exceeds a set value in atleast one of the phases. Current exceeds Idiff>> .MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Differential Protection Overfluxing restraint • During overexcitation of transformer. tripping is blocked • • • No blocking if diff. may lead to maltripping.

Saturation Discriminator Stability with Saturated C.T.‟s i1 i2 id Inhibit pulses id with inhibit • ZA0912B No blocking if diff. Current exceeds Idiff>>> .

‟s i2 id Inhibit pulses With inhibit id ZA0912B .T.Saturation Discriminator Operation with Saturated C.

MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Functional Details Ground Differential Protection REF_1 REF_2 REF_3 .

Path is available • • One Ground diff. Protn available per Xfmr winding Based on comparing the Vector sum of phase currents.MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Ground Differential Protection • Can be applied to Xfmr windings with grounded neutral point where a C. IN with the Neutral-point current IY • The Diff. in neutral to gnd.  Both current arrows point either towards the winding or away from it . Applies under the condition of uniformly defined current arrows relative to the Xfmr winding.T. Protn.

Inom.N.Vnom.z kam.z = Sref 3.z • where am : amplitude matched.z = Inom.z z : winding : primary nominal current of the Main C. : primary nominal current of the Neutral C.T.Y.z Inom.N.Y.T. .z Iref.z Iref.N.z kam.MiCOM 30 Series Ground Differential Protection Amplitude Matching: Iref.Y.z = Inom.N.

G/I ref .2 I r ef Fault current (internal fault)characteristic for transient saturation of the main C.N  IA .5 I > d.G  k amp .G /I ref 2 Characteristic equation: Id.MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Ground Differential Protection Tripping Characteristic I d.‟s 0.G > +m  IR.G: 1.G  k amp . IB .Y  IY IR . IC  0.T. IC   k amp .5 m = 1.5 2 I R.G and IR.N  I A .5 1 1.G = Id.G Definition of Id.005 1 Id. IB .G = 0.

IAE IY =+ IAE Therefore : Id.G = 0 IR.G = IAE P63X .Ground Differential Protection Operation.External Faults Winding a C B A IAE Winding b C B A IAE IN =(IA+IB+IC) =.

Ground Differential Protection Operation.G = IAE P63X .p Winding b C B A IAE.p = IAE.Internal Faults Winding a C B A IAE. IAE IR.G = 2.n IN =(IA+IB+IC) =+ IAE IY =+ IAE (Assuming IAE.n = IAE) Therefore : Id.

MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Functional Details Definite-Time Overcurrent Protection DTOC1 DTOC2 DTOC3 .

DTOC3) is freely assignable to a winding  Virtual winding may be defined for summation of currents from two real windings (application on two breakers in a ring bus or breaker-and-a-half configuration)  3 separate measuring systems for phase currents. DTOC2.MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Definite-Time O/C Protection Main Features  Definite-time overcurrent protection. three-stage. negative-sequence current and residual current All 3 measuring systems operate independently of each other:   Settable operate delay per stage Sequence of all operate delays can be blocked – through appropriately configured binary signal inputs or – per selection matrix via a binary signal input or – per programmable logic (LOGIC) . phase-selective  Each function group (DTOC1.

MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Functional Details Inverse-Time Overcurrent Protection IDMT1 IDMT2 IDMT3 .

IDMT3) is freely assignable to a winding Virtual winding may be defined for summation of currents from two real windings (application on two breakers in a ring bus or breaker-and-a-half configuration) 3 separate measuring systems for phase currents. IDMT2. phase-selective Each function group (IDMT1. negative-sequence current and residual current All 3 measuring systems operate independently of each other:  Choice of 12 different tripping time characteristics   Accumulation of intermittend startings by means of a hold-time logic Sequence of all operate delays can be blocked – through appropriately configured binary signal inputs or – per selection matrix via a binary signal input or – per programmable logic (LOGIC) . single-stage.MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Inverse-Time O/C Protection Main Features     Inverse-time overcurrent protection.

MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Functional Details Thermal Overload Protection THRM1 THRM2 .

MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Functional Details Over-/Undervoltage Protection V< > .

two-stage:  Sequence of all operate delays can be blocked – through appropriately configured binary signal inputs or – per selection matrix via a binary signal input or – per programmable logic (LOGIC) .MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Over-/Undervoltage Protection Main Features   Definite-time overvoltage protection. two-stage Definite-time undervoltage protection.

MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Functional Details Over-/Underfrequency Protection f< > .

four-stage All four stages operate independently of each other:  Operation modes: – Over-/underfrequency monitoring – Over-/underfrequency monitoring in conjunction with differential frequency gradient monitoring (df/dt) for system decoupling applications – Over-/underfrequency monitoring in conjunction with average frequency gradient monitoring (Df/Dt) for load shedding applications  Settable operate delay  Sequence of all operate delays can be blocked – through appropriately configured binary signal inputs or – per selection matrix via a binary signal input or – per programmable logic (LOGIC) .MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Over-/Underfrequency Protection Main Features  Over-/underfrequncy protection.

MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Functional Details Overexcitation Protection V/ f .

MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Overexcitation Protection Main Features    V/f ratio based measurement Alarm stage V/f> with definite time delay Trip stage V/f>> with inverse time characteristic – Characteristic defined by 12 settable value pairs – Cooling time of thermal replica settable Trip stage V/f>>> with definite time delay Sequence of all operate delays can be blocked – through appropriately configured binary signal inputs or – per selection matrix via a binary signal input or – per programmable logic (LOGIC)   .

60 V/ f Vnom/ fnom .MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Overexcitation Protection Tripping Characteristic t 100 V/ f> > 10 ..50 1..30 .00 1..40 1. V/ f> > > 1. 1 1.20 1..10 1.

MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Functional Details Programmable Logic LOGIC .

DIFF. . IDMT.MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Programmable Logic Embedding of Programmable Logic Control Inputs Functions Fixed Logic: Configuration: DIST. INP LOC PC COMM1 COMM2 OUTP LED LOC PC COMM1 COMM2 Configuration: Trip and Signals ...

DIFF... INP LOC PC COMM1 COMM2 OUTP LED LOC PC COMM1 COMM2 Configuration: Trip and Signals Programmable Logic: LOGIC . .MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Programmable Logic Embedding of Programmable Logic Control Inputs Functions Fixed Logic: Configuration: DIST. IDMT.

Differential Protection Hardware .MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Transf.

Differential Protection Models* Inputs and Outputs P631 Measuring inputs P632 2x3 2 1 4 to 10 24 8 to 22 1 1 2 P633 3x3 MiCOM P634 4x3 3 G C G G G G G Screw Terminals for Pin Lugs 2x3 MiCOM MiCOM MiCOM TRIP TRIP TRIP ALARM OUT OF SERVICE HEALTHY EDIT = = = CLEAR READ ENTER ALARM ALARM OUT OF SERVICE HEALTHY OUT OF SERVICE HEALTHY 40TE currents Phase MiCOM TRIP ALARM OUT OF SERVICE HEALTHY EDIT Residual current or neutral-point current EDIT EDIT = = = CLEAR READ ENTER – G C G G G 3 1 TRIP ALARM OUT OF SERVICE HEALTHY EDIT C = = = CLEAR READ ENTER G C G G C G C G G G C G C G G G C = = = CLEAR READ ENTER C = = = CLEAR READ ENTER Voltage G G G G G G G G – G G G 1 G G Binary inputs and outputs Optical P631 coupler inputs (per order) P632 Add.MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Transf. optical coupler inputs (optional) P633 MiCOM TRIP ALARM OUT OF SERVICE HEALTHY EDIT 4 – 4 to 16 24 MiCOM TRIP ALARM 4 to P634 10 24 8 to 22 G C G G G G G 84TE Output relays (per order) MiCOM MiCOM 8 to 14 G C G G G G G 8 to 30 OUT OF SERVICE HEALTHY EDIT Analogue inputs and outputs (optional) TRIP TRIP ALARM ALARM OUT OF SERVICE HEALTHY OUT OF SERVICE HEALTHY EDIT EDIT C = = = CLEAR READ ENTER C = = = CLEAR READ G C G C = = = CLEAR READ G C G C = = = CLEAR READ ENTER ENTER ENTER G G G G G G G 0 to 20 mA input G G – – 1 1 2 G PT 100 input 0 to 20 mA outputs Screw Terminals for Ring –Lugs G G G 1 1 2 *Both Flush & Surface Mounted Case Designs available .

optical coupler inputs (optional) 08 09 10 Analogue inputs and outputs (optional) 0 to 20 mA input Processor Module Binary I/O Module Power Supply Module – – PTCommunication Module 100 input 0 to 20 mA Transformer Module outputs Analog I/O Module – 2 .P630 Hardware .Example (1) Inputs and Outputs Module Location Diagram for P632 in Case 40 TE (Pin Terminals) 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 P631 10 P632 2x3 : Option P633 3x3 3 P634 4x3 3 Measuring inputs Phase currents Residual current or neutral-point current Voltage X P A T 4*J 24*I 2x3 – X– 2 1 T 4*J X Y 6*I 8*O 4*I V 4*I 8*O 1 1  MODULAR 4 to 16 24 8 to 30 1 1 2 4 to 10 24 8 to 22 1 1 2 Binary inputs and outputs Optical coupler inputs (per order) 1*U Output relays (per order) 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 4 6*O – 8 to 14 4 to 10 24 8 to 22 1 1 Add.

P630 Hardware Example (2) Inputs and Outputs Module Location Diagram for P633 in Case 84 TE (Pin Terminals) 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 P631 16 17 18 P632 19 20 P633 21 P634 4x3 3 1 : Option Measuring inputs Phase currents Residual current or neutral-point current Voltage P A T 4*J 2x3 – X X Y 4*I 2x3 2 1 4 to 10 24 8 to 22 17 18 16 19 3x3 3 1 V 4*I T 4*J T 4*J X – 4 – 8 to 14 X Binary inputs and outputs Optical coupler inputs (per order) 1*U Add. optical coupler inputs (optional) Output relays (per order) 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 6*I 6*I 24*I 8*O 8*O 4 to 16 4 to 10 8*O 6*O 24 8 to 30 20 21 24 8 to 22 1 1 2 15 Analogue inputs and outputs (optional) 0 to 20 mA input PT 100 input Transformer 0 to 20 mA outputs Module Communication Module Processor Module Analog I/O Module – – – 1 1 2 1 1 2 Binary I/O Module Power Supply Module .

using MiCOM S1 Rear Ports: Optional 2 remote Comm. ports : either RS 485 interface-twisted copper wire connection OR Fibre Optic interface .FO cable connector An optional IRIG-B interface is available for time synchronisation   .P630 Serial Interfaces  Front PC RS 232 serial interface for local comm.

a/b/c/d .401   It is essential that the grounding configuration shown in the diagram be followed. this can be taken into account in the settings at: P63X/Parameters/Function/Global/Main/Conn meas.P630 Connections  Current transformer connections to be given in accordance with the standard terminal connection diagram indicated on the type identification label Example: P634 -74991196-301-401-601-801 Diagram: P634. If a connection is in opposition. IP.circ.

optical coupler inputs (optional) Output relays (per order) Analogue inputs and outputs (optional) 0 to 20 mA input PT 100 input 0 to 20 mA outputs G G G G H16 24 8 to 22 1 1 2 X6 – – – .MiCOM P631/632/633/634 Transf. Differential Protection Front and InputsFace Outputs MiCOM P631 2x3 – G G P632 2x3 2 1 4 to 10 24 8 to 22 1 1 2 P633 3x3 3 1 4 to 16 24 8 to 30 1 1 2 P634 4x3 H5 3 1 4 to 10 Measuring inputs H4Phase currents H1 Voltage TRIP ALARM HEALTHY EDIT C = = = CLEAR READ ENTER OUT OF SERVICE Residual current or neutral-point current G C – 4 – 8 to 14 Binary inputs and outputs H17 Optical coupler inputs (per order) Add.

“ALARM” : Meaning : Internal fault detected OR Relay functioning hindrances like: Calculated reference currents/matching factors not within permissible range or amplitude matching factor conditions not satisfied Action from operator: Read out the “Monitoring Signal Memory” : P63X/Operations/Op.data.LED interpretations 1  LED. Signal Memory . Chap. (Trouble shooting) .Try a Cold Restart  (Full list of possible SFMON signals given in Guide.Then clear the Mon.Rec. 10./MT_RC .

LED interpretations 2  LED.rel.“OUT OF SERVICE” : Meaning : (1) Output relay has been blocked by user: Par/Func/Glob/OUTP/“Output.block USER” (2) Device has been disabled by user: Par/Func/Glob/MAIN/ “Protection Enabled” (3) Trip command has been blocked by user: “No”  “Yes”  Par/Func/Glob/MAIN/ “Trip command block.USER” (4) SFMON has detected an internal fault: “Yes”  ( ALARM LED also lights up and output assigned to “Blocked/Faulty is energised ) .

Local Control Panel Operations Following tasks can be handled from the LOC :   Readout and editing of settings Readout of cyclically updated measured Operating data & Logic state signals   Readout of operating data logs and monitoring signal logs Readout of event logs and fault measured data after overload situations and faults  Resetting of device and triggering of additional control functions designed to support testing and commissioning tasks .

enter the password  (3) For some functions. to edit the settings we need to disable the device: Par/Func/Glob/MAIN/ “Protection Enabled” =“No”  .Local Control Panel Operations  To enter the EDIT mode : (1) Activate the Global Change-enabling function: Oper/Cntrl&Test/LOC/“Par change enable” “Yes”  (2) To activate the change.

disable the protection: P63X/Par/Func/Glob/MAIN/Protection Enabled = “No”  P63X/Oper/Ctrl&Test/MAIN/Cold Restart = “Execute”  . all settings to revert to default values and all records to be cleared .This causes the device to reboot.Prior to performing a cold restart.Local Control Panel Operations COLD RESTART  Many problems may occur (like Alarm LED) due to the fact that the setting status of the device makes it difficult for the user to know what‟s going on ! In such cases. perform a cold restart: .

Memory Readouts The following memories are available:  Operating data memory: Oper/Rec/OP_RC .a signal entry due to internal fault detected by SFMON function or a setting configuration that hinders flawless functioning of the device  Event Memory: Events/Rec/FT_RC : fault memories 1 to 8 Events/Rec/OL_RC : overload memories 1 to 8 .contains stored signals of actions that occur during operation such as enabling or disabling of a function  Monitoring Signal memory: Oper/Rec/MT_RC .

device stores protection signals logged during a fault .phase and residual values of each winding .Per unit Second and fifth harmonic levels of the differential current .Maximum 8 records  Fault Recorded Data (FT_RC) (Disturbance records): .  Fault Logging: .Fault duration .Maximum 8 faults. 200 signals on each fault incident .Fault currents .Max 8 records.Voltage (1) .4 sec.Phase currents of all four ends of the transformer . 16. Fault Data Acquisition & Fault Recording  Fault Measured Data (FT_DA): .T.Residual current measured at the Neutral C.Fault Logging. .Differential and restraining currents on all 3 phases .

Subset 1/DIFF/Enable =Yes .USER =Yes (3)Activate the desired function in the parameter subset : P63X/Par/Func/Par.Configuring & Enabling of Function Groups  In order to enable a function group (say Differential): (1)Configure the desired function: P63X/Par/Config/DIFF/Enable =Yes (2)Enable the desired function: P63X/Par/Func/General/DIFF/General Enable.

Some tips on configuring the Tripping Outputs  NOTE: Always use a “Trip command” for operating the trip coil Procedure: (1)Configure the trip command: Example: P63X/Par/Func/Global/MAIN/Fct.K2001 = Gen.1= #01 DIFF Trip signal OR #02 Manual Trip Signal (2)Configure the output relay: Recommended: P63X/Par/Conf/OUTP/ Fct.assign.Trip command 1 .assign.Trip.cmd.