KBL Srivastava

Primary data: information obtained firsthand by the researcher on the variables of interest for the specific purpose of the study.
Examples: individuals, focus groups, panels Secondary data: information gathered from sources already existing.

 

Examples: company records or archives, government publications, industry analyses offered by the media, web sites, the Internet, and so on.

2

Surveys ask respondents for information using verbal or written questioning

Respondents are a representative sample of people .

     Quick Inexpensive Efficient Accurate Flexible .

  Poor Design Improper Execution .

Random sampling error Total error Systematic error (bias) .

 A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of change variation in the elements selected for the sample .

 Systematic error results from some imperfect aspect of the research design or from a mistake in the execution of the research .

Administrative error Systematic error (bias) Respondent error .

when the results of a sample show a persistent tendency to deviate in one direction from the true value of the population parameter . Sample bias .

Nonresponse error Respondent error Response bias .

 A classification of sample bias resulting from some respondent action or inaction  Nonresponse bias  Response bias .

people who refuse to cooperate Not-at-homes Self-selection bias  Over-represents extreme positions  Under-represents indifference .   Nonrespondents .

Deliberate falsification Response bias Unconscious misrepresentation .

A bias that occurs when respondents tend to answer questions with a certain slant that consciously or unconsciously misrepresents the truth .

Acquiescence bias Extremity bias Interviewer bias Auspices bias Social desirability bias .

. A category of response bias that results because some individuals tend to agree with all questions or to concur with a particular position.

. A category of response bias that results because response styles vary from person to person. some individuals tend to use extremes when responding to questions.

. A response bias that occurs because the presence of the interviewer influences answers.

 Bias in the responses of subjects caused by the respondents being influenced by the organization conducting the study. .

to gain prestige or appear in a different social role. either conscious or unconscious. Bias in responses caused by respondents’ desire. .

Administrative error Systematic error (bias) Respondent error .

  Improper administration of the research task Blunders  Confusion  Neglect  Omission .

Data processing error Sample selection error Interviewer error Interviewer cheating .

    Interviewer cheating . Sample selection error -improper sample design or sampling procedure execution. Interviewer error . or other procedural errors during the analysis stage. computer programming.field mistakes .filling in fake answers or falsifying interviewers Data processing error .incorrect data entry.

CLASSIFYING SURVEY RESEARCH METHODS METHOD OF COMMUNICATION STRUCTURED AND DISQUISED QUESTIONS TEMPORAL CLASSIFICATIONS .

  Cross-sectional Longitudinal .

 Personal interviews  Door-to-door  Shopping mall intercepts   Telephone interviews Self-administered questionnaires .

extended probing possible .Door-to-Door Personal Interview Speed of data collection: Moderate to fast Geographical flexibility: Limited to moderate Respondent cooperation: Excellent Versatility of questioning: Quite versatile Questionnaire length: long Item nonresponse: Low Possibility of respondent misunderstanding: Lowest Degree of interviewer influence of answer: High Supervision of interviewers: Moderate Anonymity of respondent: Low Ease of call back or follow-up: Difficult Cost: Highest Special features: Visual materials may be shown or demonstrated.

viewing of TV commercials possible . urban bias Respondent cooperation: Moderate to low Versatility of questioning: Extremely versatile Questionnaire length: Moderate to long Item nonresponse: Medium Possibility of respondent misunderstanding: Lowest Degree of interviewer influence of answers: Highest Supervision of interviewers: Moderate to high Anonymity of respondent: Low Ease of call back or follow-up: Difficult Cost: Moderate to high Special features: Taste test.            Speed of data collection: Fast Geographical flexibility: Confined.

quite adaptable to computer technology . especially with central location Anonymity of respondent: Moderate Ease of call back or follow-up: Easy Cost: Low to moderate Special features: Fieldwork and supervision of data collection are simplified.             Speed of Data Collection: Very fast Geographical Flexibility: High Respondent Cooperation: Good Versatility of Questioning: Moderate Questionnaire Length: Moderate Item Nonresponse: Medium Possibility of Respondent Misunderstanding: Average Degree of Interviewer Influence of Answer: Moderate Supervision of interviewers: High.

SELF-ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRES PAPER QUESTIONNAIRES ELECTRONIC QUESTIONNAIRES MAIL IN-PERSON DROP-OFF INSERTS FAX E-MAIL INTERNET WEB SITE KIOSK .

slow Geographical flexibility: High Respondent cooperation: Moderate--poorly designed questionnaire will have low response rate Versatility of questioning: Highly standardized format Questionnaire length: Varies depending on incentive Item nonresponse: High Possibility of respondent misunderstanding: Highest--no interviewer present for clarification Degree of interviewer influence of answer: None--interviewer absent Supervision of interviewers: Not applicable Anonymity of respondent: High Ease of call back or follow-up: Easy. but takes time Cost: Lowest ◦ .            Speed of data collection: Researcher has no control over return of questionnaire.

As a token of appreciation .• Write a “sales oriented” cover letter • Money helps .For a charity • Stimulate respondents’ interest with interesting questions • Follow Up .Keying questionnaires with codes • Advanced notification • Sponsorship by a well-known and prestigious institution .

       Effective cover letter Money helps Interesting questions Follow-ups Advanced notification Survey sponsorship Keying questionnaires .

but ◦ Extensive differences in the capabilities of respondents’ computers and e-mail software limit the types of questions and the layout   E-mails are not secure and “eavesdropping” can possibly occur Respondent cooperation ◦ Varies depending if e-mail is seen as “spam” . Flexible.

or keying in an answer Speed of data collection: Instantaneous Cost effective Geographic flexibility : Worldwide Visual and interactive Respondent cooperation: Varies depending on website. clicking an icon. When user does not opt-in or expect a voluntary survey cooperation is low.participants tend to be more deeply involved than the average person Versatility of questioning: Extremely versatile Questionnaire length: Individualized based on respondent answers on Longer questionnaires with panel samples Item nonresponse: Software can assure none . Respondents provide answers to questions displayed online by highlighting a phrase. Self-selection problems in web site visitation surveys .          A self-administered questionnaire posted on a Web site. depending on type of sample.

A sample of those who visit a web page and voluntarily fill out a questionnaires can have self-selection error not all individuals in the general public have internet access many respondents lack powerful computers with high-speed connections to the internet many respondents computer skills will be relatively unsophisticated Possibility for respondent misunderstanding: High Interviewer influence of answers: None Supervision of interviewers: not required Anonymity of Respondent: Respondent can be anonymous or known Ease of Callback or Follow-up: difficult unless e-mail address is known Special Features: allows graphics and streaming media .            Representative samples The quality of internet samples may vary substantially.

.   Welcome Screen like a cover letter It contains the name of the research company and how to contact the organization if there is a problem or concern. "If you have any concerns or questions about this survey. or if you experience any technical difficulties. please contact (NAME OF RESEARCH ORGANIZATION).

Please enter your personal password from your invitation.Then, press the "enter" key to begin the survey or simply click on the right arrow at the bottom of the page to begin the survey (after you have read the remaining instructions): During the survey, please do not use your browser's FORWARD and BACK buttons. Use the arrows on the lower right to move backward and forward through the survey.

What can be observed?  Physical actions  Verbal behavior  Expressive behavior  Spatial relations and locations  Temporal patterns  Verbal and pictorial records

Phenomena

Example

Human behavior or physical Shoppers movement action pattern in a store Verbal behavior Statements made by airline travelers who wait in line Facial expressions, tone of voice, and other form of body language

Expressive behavior

Phenomena Spatial relations and locations Example How close visitors at an art museum stand to paintings Temporal patterns How long fast-food customers wait for their order to be served What brand name items are stored in consumers’ pantries Bar codes on product packages Physical objects Verbal and Pictorial Records .

    Human versus mechanical Visible versus hidden Direct Contrived .

   Certain data may be obtained more quickly Environmental conditions may be recorded May be combined with survey to provide supplemental evidence Limitations       Cognitive phenomena cannot be observed Interpretation of data may be a problem Not all activity can be recorded Only short periods can be observed Observer bias possible Possible invasion of privacy .

  Physical-trace evidence Wear and tear of a book indicates how often it has been read .

 The creation of an artificial environment to test a hypothesis .

.  Recording the decision time necessary to make a choice between two alternatives It is presumed to indicate the strength of preference between alternatives.

articles.   Obtains data by observing and analyzing the content of advertisements. Deals with the study of the message itself Measures the extent of emphasis or omission . etc. letters.

     Traffic Counters Web Traffic Scanners Peoplemeter Physiological Measures .

   Hits and page views Jupiter Media Metrics Nielsen//NetRatings .

Eye tracking  Pupilometer  Psychogalvanometer  Voice pitch Eye Tracking Monitors  Record how the subject actually reads or views an advertisement  Measure unconscious eye movements  .

. This device observes and records changes in the diameter of the subject’s pupils.

   Measures galvanic skin response Involuntary changes in the electrical resistance of the skin Assumption: physiological changes accompany emotional reactions .

 Measures emotional reactions through physiological changes in a person’s voice .

  A QUESTIONNAIRE IS ONLY AS GOOD AS THE QUESTIONS IT ASKS A Good Questionnaire AppearsAs easy to compose as a good poem But. painstaking work . it is usually the result of long.

1. In what sequence should the questions be arranged? 4. How should the questionnaire be pretested? Does the questionnaire need to be revised? . What questionnaire layout will best serve the research objectives? 5. How should each question be phrased? 3. What should be asked? 2.

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written set of questions to which the respondent records his answers  Steps 1. 4. 2. 5. Definition A questionnaire is a pre-formulated. Determine the content of the questionnaire Determine the form of response Determine the wording of the questions Determine the question sequence Write cover letter 60 . 3.

 Framework Need information for all constructs in framework  Measurement: Operationalizing ◦ Objective construct:  1 element/items => 1 question ◦ Subjective construct:  multiple elements/items => multiple questions 61 .

 Closed vs. Measurement: Response scales 62 . Open-ended questions ◦ Closed questions  Helps respondents to make quick decisions  Helps researchers to code  First: unbiased point of view  Final: additional insights  Complementary to closed question: for interpretation purpose ◦ Open-ended question  Cfr.

   Avoid double-barreled questions Avoid ambiguous questions and words Use of ordinary words    Avoid leading or biasing questions Social desirability Avoid recall depended questions 63 .

 Use positive and negative statements ◦ Dresdner delivers high quality banking service Dresdner has poor customer operational support ◦ Avoid double negatives  Limit the length of the questions Rules of thumb: ◦ < 20 words ◦ < one full line in print 64 .

Personal and sensitive data at the end 65 .

 The cover letter is the introductory page of the questionnaire It includes: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Identification of the researcher Motivation for respondents to fill it in Confidentiality Thanking of the respondent  66 .

Questionnaire relevance  Questionnaire accuracy Phrasing Questions  Open-ended questions  Fixed-alternative questions  .

structured questions Unstructured Example: Survey with open-ended questions to discover “new” answers or focus group interview Undisguised Example: Example: Projection techniques used mostly for exploratory research Disguised Survey interview to measure brand A’s image versus competitive brands’ images or brand recall (unaided recall) .Classifying Surveys by Degree of Structure and Degree of Disguise Structured Example: Typical descriptive survey with straight-forward.

 • No hard and fast rules. conversational language Avoid leading and loaded questions Avoid ambiguity: be as specific as possible Avoid double-barreled items Avoid making assumptions Avoid burdensome questions • • • • • . only guidelines Avoid Complexity: use simple.

1. and property from violent criminal attack? Yes No Undecided 2. their families. Do you believe that a ban on the private ownership of firearms would be significantly reduce the number of murders and robberies in your community? Yes No Undecided . Do you believe that private citizens have the right to own firearms to defend themselves.

. . Lower Intermediate . . . . . . . . -3 . . . . . . . . . -4 -5 -6 c. has your level of play improved. . . . . . . . . . . Teaching Pro . . . . Upper Intermediate . . What is your level of play? Novice . . -1 -2 Decreased. . . . . . . . . . . . . -1 -2 -3 Advanced . . Expert . Remained the same . . . . . . . . How many years have you been playing tennis on a regular basis? Number of years: __________ b. . In the last 12 months. . . . . . . .1a. remained the same or decreased? Improved. . .

. .) To have fun . . . . To be with friends. . . . . . . . . . . . How many people in your household . . . . . . . Why do you play tennis? (Please “X” all that apply. . . . . . -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 b.including yourself . . . . To stay fit. . In the past 12 months. . .2a. . . . . . . . . No . . .play tennis? Number who play tennis ___________ 3a. . To win. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To improve my game . . -1 No . . . . . . have you purchased any tennis instructional books or video tapes? Yes . . . -1 -2 b. Do you belong to a club with tennis facilities? Yes . . -2 . . . . . . . . To compete. .

we would appreciate it if you would complete this questionnaire.Dear Passenger: Indian Airlines is pleased to have you on board today. If you are over 11 years old. we need to know more about you and your opinions of our service. Thank you. . To help us provide the best service possible. Your flight attendant will pick up your completed questionnaire shortly.

. . . 2 No . . . . . . 3 b. . . . 1 Yes. . all things considered. . . from your arrival at the airport terminal until now? Excellent Good 1 2 Fair 3 Poor 4 Overall Service . . . . . . Please indicate: Flight number ___________ Date_____________ 2a. from Other Airline . . . . 1 2 3. . . . from American . . .1. . . Through passenger. At the city where you boarded this particular plane. did you make a connection from another flight? Yes. . or were you a through passenger for which that was an intermediate stop? Boarded here . . . . . . . How would you rate the overall service from American for this flight. . . . . Did you board this plane at the airport from which it just took off. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On-Time Departure . . . . . . Fair Poor 1 2 3 4 . . .4. . . . . . . . Cabin Cleanliness . . . . . . . Please rate each of the following with regard to this flight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boarding Point (Gate) Agent . Video/Stereo Entertainment . . Flight Attendants . Airport Ticket Counter Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carry-On Stowage Space. . if applicable. . Seat Comfort. . . . . . Your Meal or Snack. . . . . . . Excellent Good Courtesy and Treatment from the: Skycap at airport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beverage Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 Question sequence ◦ Order bias ◦ Funnel technique ◦ Filter bias  Question layout PRETESTING IS IMPORTANT  .

     Graphical User Interface (GUI) Paging layout going from screen to screen Scrolling layout gives the respondent the ability to scroll down Push buttons Status bar .

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