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# Genetic Algorithm Selection Schemes

## By: Mohammed Mazaida

Supervisor : Dr. Eyas Alqawasmah

1. Introduction

Genetic Algorithms (GA) are probabilistic search algorithms, based on the model of natural evolution.

GA follow the idea of SURVIVAL OF THE FITTESTBetter and better solutions evolve from previous generations until a near optimal solution is obtained .
In computer world, genetic material (chromosomes) is replaced by strings of bits and natural selection replaced by fitness function.
Genetic Algorithm Selction Schemes

## 2. Basic Genetic Algorithm

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Starting with an initial random n population which are suitable solutions for the problem.

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Evaluate the fitness of each individual ( solution ) in the population. The fitness is a metric to indicate how good an individual represents a solution of the problem
New individuals are introduced by crossover operation, where at least two individuals of a generation are chosen as 'parents'. Their genomes are combined to produce children. Genetic Algorithm Selction Schemes

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## Basic Genetic Algorithm ,,,cont

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Mutation operation is performed by replacing a part of the child with a random value.

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Select two parent chromosomes from a population according to their fitness (the better fitness, the bigger chance to be selected) The idea is to choose the better parents.
Loop from step 2 until the end condition is satisfied, and return the best solution in current population,
Genetic Algorithm Selction Schemes

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## Basic Genetic Algorithm ,,,cont

Describe Problem Generate Initial Solutions

Yes

Stop

## No Select parents to reproduce

Apply crossover process and create a set of offspring Apply random mutation

3. Selection schemes.

Selection schemes are used to improve the quality of the population by giving individuals of higher quality a higher probability to be inserted into mate pool to generate new offspring. Selection pressure is the degree to which the individuals in the mat pool needed to be better. Low selection pressure leads to slow convergence rate and long time will be needed to find the optimal solution.

## Genetic Algorithm Selction Schemes

Selection schemescont
Selection schemes characterized by several terms such as :

selection intensity IP expected average fitness value of the population after applying a selection method . Selection variance is the expected variance of the fitness distribution of the population after applying the selection method to the normalized Gaussian distribution Loss of diversity proportion of individuals of a population that is not selected during the selection phase[1]
Genetic Algorithm Selction Schemes

## The Selection schemes ,,,cont

Commonly used selection schemes: Proportionate reproduction. Tournament selection. Truncation selection Linear ranking selection.

## 3.1 Proportional Selection

also known as roulette-wheel selection Parents are selected according to their fitness. The better , the more chances to be selected Can be imagined as roulette wheel where are placed all individuals, every has its place big accordingly to its fitness function.

Then a marble is thrown there and selects the individual . individuals with bigger fitness will be selected more times.
Genetic Algorithm Selction Schemes

Proportional Selectioncont

This can be simulated by following algorithm. [Sum] Calculate sum of all chromosome fitnesses in population - sum S. [Select] Generate random number from interval (0,S) - r. [Loop] Go through the population and sum fitnesses from 0 - sum s. When the sum s is greater then r, stop and return the chromosome where you are. Of course, step 1 is performed only once for each population.
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Proportional Selectioncont

## where N is the number of individuals in the population.

The time complexity of the algorithm is O(N).

Selection intensity
where is the mean variance of the fitness values of the population before selection. Genetic Algorithm Selction
Schemes

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Proportional Selectioncont

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## 3.2 Tournament selection

Choose some number of individuals ( t) (tournament size )randomly from the population and select the best individual from this group as parent. Repeat N time. No sorting of population is needed

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## Genetic Algorithm Selction Schemes

Tournament selectioncont

Selection intensity

Selection variance: This method is not very useful when we use large population because we will need a lot of N time to search every time on new element from the selected group randomly
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## Tournament selection ...cont

Gaussian fitness distribution approximately leads again to Gaussian distributions after tournament selection (from left to right: initial distribution, t =2, t = 5, t = 10).[2]

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## 3.3 Truncation selection

Individuals are sorted according to their fitness. Only the individuals above the threshold T are selected as parents. As a sorting of the population is required, truncation selection has a time complexity of O(N ln N).

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## Genetic Algorithm Selction Schemes

Truncation selectioncont

Selection intensity

Selection Variance:

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## Genetic Algorithm Selction Schemes

Truncation selectioncont

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## Genetic Algorithm Selction Schemes

Truncation selectioncont

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## 3.4 Linear Ranking Selection

For ranking selection the individuals are sorted according their fitness values and the rank N is assigned to the best individual and the rank 1 to the worst individual. The probability for the individual to be selected given by

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## Linear Ranking Selectioncont

As a sorting of the population is required, it has a time complexity of O(N log N). Selection intensity

## Where /N is the probability of the worst individual to be Selected

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## Linear Ranking Selectioncont

Gaussian fitness distribution and the resulting distributions after performing ranking selection with - = 0.5 and - = 0 (from left to right).[2]

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## Genetic Algorithm Selction Schemes

Conclusion

A genetic algorithm conceptually a simulation of steps inspired by the biological processes of evolution. Selection schemes are use to choose the individuals in the population that will create offspring for the next generation. Proportionate reproduction, Tournament selection, Truncation selection and Linear ranking selection are examples of selection schemes Selection schemes are characterized by selection intensity, selection variance and loss of diversity.
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Reference
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http://www.geatbx.com/docu/algindex-02.html Blickle,T.,& Thiele,L.(1995). A comparison of selection schemes used in genetic algorithms. (TechnicalReportNo.11). Gloriastrasse35,CH-8092 Zurich: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Computer Engineering and Communications Networks Lab(TIK). Stuart Russell & Peter Norvig. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. 2 Edition / 2003 http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/genalg/genalg.html BradL.Miller & DavidE.Goldberg (1996). Genetic Algorithms, Selection Schemes, and the Varying effects of Noise.
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