RESPIRATION (INTRODUCTION TO RESPIRATION AND HOW ATP RELEASED

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NORSYARIHAN BT ZULKEFFALI NOR FAZLINA BT ABDUL RAHMAN ZURAIDAH BT KHALIT AT2203B

The introduction of respiration  Respiration is essentially the release of energy from glucose molecules that are broken down to individual carbon dioxide molecules. .  It initiated in the cytoplasm and completed in mitochondria.

Some hydrogen energy and water are removed. and some hydrogen atoms are removed from compounds derived from glucose molecules which involves 3 main steps: The glucose molecules becomes a fructose molecule carrying 2 phosphates (P). 3. a small amount of energy is released. phase takes place in the cytoplasm which requires no oxygen gas. . During the process.Glycolysis  Most form of carbohydrate respiration on the first major  1. living pyruvic acid. 2. This sugar (fructose) molecule is split into 2 3-carbon fragments called glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GA3P).

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Aerobic respiration  The most widespread form of respiration and the process cannot be completed without oxygen gas.  Its store energy released requires oxygen. carbon dioxide and water by product of the process. C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂ enzymes 6CO₂ + 6H₂O + energy Glucose oxygen carbon water dioxide  In aerobic respiration consists of the citric acid cycle and electron transport. .

and 1 molecule of FADH₂ are produce during 1 complete cycle. one molecule of ATP. producing first a 6-carbon compound. The citric acid (Krebs) cycle  Acetyl CoA combines with 4-carbon oxaloacetic acid. next a 5-carbon compound. .  Some hydrogen are removed during the citric acid cycle is picked up by FAD and NAD. and then several 4-carbon compound.  The last 4-carbon compound is oxaloacetic acid.  2-carbon dioxide molecules are released during this process. 3 molecules of NADH.

CITRIC ACID CYCLE .

 The electron transport.  Energy associated with electron and/or with hydrogen picked up by NAD and FAD is gradually released as the electron are pasted along the electron transport system.  Energy used in ATP synthesis during oxidative phosphorylation is believed to be derived from a gradient of protons formed across the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. while electrons are moving in the electron transport system by chemiosmosis. Some of these energy is transferred to ATP molecule during oxidative phosphorylation. .

ETS .

 The remaining energy is in the ethyl alcohol. .  Some released energy is stored in ATP molecule. lactic acid.Anaerobic respiration and fermentation  Do not required oxygen gas.  The forms of anaerobic respiration are adaptive to the organisms that have them in that they recycle NAD and allow glycolysis to continue. and less energy is released. or other such substances produced.

FERMENTATION .

acts as a medium in which the enzymatic reaction can take place.water inside the cell and their organelles. respiration does not cease completely. 2. . . 3. Water . the respiration rate of plants double and sometime even triple. the faster the energy is released from sugar molecule.When air temperature rise from 20 C – 30 C. . Oxygen . but it continues at a drastically reduce in rate.when water content becomes low.the rate of respiration decrease as oxygen concentration also decrease.Factor affecting the rate of respiration Temperature . 1.the faster respiration occurs.