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Introduction to Leadership

Chapter 1

Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership

Prologue - Leadership: Definitions & Overview

Ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals Requires a leader and follower(s) Different from management??

Leadership = doing the right things Management = doing things right

Successful vs. effective managers

(It has been observed, most of the times, effective managers possess leadership traits)
Teena Y. Sharma Intro. to Leadership 2

Prologue - Managers vs. Leaders

Managers Rational, problemsolving, control React and respond Interact rationally with other people Leaders Mystical, define problems, inspire Vision, proactive Emotional relationship with other people

Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership

Famous Quote Boss or Leader

The boss drives his/her team; the leader coaches them. The boss depends upon authority; the leader depends upon good will. The boss inspires fear; the leader inspires enthusiasm. The boss says, "I"; the leader says "WE." The boss assigns the tasks; the leader sets the pace. The boss says, "Get here on time"; the leader begins on time. The boss fixes the blame for the breakdown; the leader fixes the breakdown. The boss knows how it is done; the leader shows how it is done. The boss makes work drudgery; the leader makes it a game. The boss says, "GO"; the leader says, "LET'S GO." Author Unknown

Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership

Prologue - What is Leadership?

The process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how it can be done effectively, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish the shared objectives A role -- a process
Teena Y. Sharma Intro. to Leadership 5

SoWhat is Leadership ?
There is no universal or standardized definition of Leadership, because Leadership is complex, and it studied in different ways with different perspectives, thus they all require different definitions. But, according to Lussier and Achua, it can be defined as Leadership is influencing process of Leaders and also followers, in order to achieve organizational objectives through change.

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What is Leadership?

The definition has five elements.


Leader Followers

Organizational Objectives



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Teena Y. Sharma

Leadership :- Influence

Influencing can be defined as the process of a leader communicating ideas, gaining acceptance of these ideas, and finally motivating the followers to support and implement these ideas through change. Influence is the essence of Leadership. Most of the organizations have two major classifications of their employees: Managers and Sub-ordinates. Managers have the formal authority to tell the sub-ordinates about what is to be done, whereas, employees do what is told to them. In this relationship, a manager has to perform all the functions of management i.e. Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling. A manager may perform the management functions well, but may not be an effective leader, which in a way may affect his effectiveness. At the same time, there may be an employee, who takes part in decisionmaking and influences people. This makes him a good leader. Influencing is about How great is the impact which you make on your followers To be a successful leader, a person must be highly influential, but not bossy.
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Leadership: Organizational Objectives

Effective Leaders are not just concerned with the growth of self. Rather, they themselves work, and influence followers to work for the interest and growth of the organization. Leadership occurs when the followers are guided to understand what is ethical and beneficial for the organization and themselves. Apart form encouraging the followers, to work for the growth of the organization and thus themselves, another task of a leader is to set specific, difficult objectives, which lead to higher levels of performance. An effective leader sets clear, achievable and high goals.

Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership

Leadership: Change
Change talks about transformation. When objectives are set for the employees, they undergo a Change. Leadership involves influencing followers, to bring about a Change, towards a desired future for the organization.

Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership


Leadership:- Leaders-Followers

A Leader is a person who leads and a Follower is a person, who gets influenced by the Leader. A Follower can be manager or non-manager. Good Followers are not Yes !!! People, who follow the leader without giving any inputs to the leader. It is not just that a leader influences Followers, the Leader also gets influenced by followers. Followers give a direction to leader for formulating the objectives. Leadership is a continuous process between Leaders and Followers.
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Leadership:- People
People is an important element of Leadership. Leadership is about leading People. Effective Leaders, enjoy working with People and helping them succeed.

Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership


Leadership Managerial Roles

Managerial Roles talk about the functions, a Leader needs to perform. The ten roles a Leader performs, in order to accomplish organizational objectives, and make people succeed are:

Interpersonal Roles Informational Roles Decisional Roles

Leader Liaison

Disseminator Spokesperson
Teena Y. Sharma

Disturbance-Handler Resource-Allocator Negotiator
Intro. to Leadership 13

Leadership Managerial Roles

They can be divided into three major categories. The categories are:

Interpersonal Roles:
Revolves around people. They include people and duties which are symbolic in nature. Has three types: Figurehead, Liaison and Leader

Informational Roles:
These are the duties which involve information. Receiving, Collecting and Disseminating information. The three types are: Monitor, Disseminator and Spokesperson

Decisional Roles:
Revolves around making choices Has four types: Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource Allocator and Negotiator.

Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership


Leadership Managerial Roles

Role Description Interpersonal Roles Figurehead Symbolic head: perform some duties which are legal or social in nature Greeting Visitors, Signing Legal documents, presiding in meetings etc. Examples


Motivate followers

Motivating followers through counseling, mentoring or promotions, rewards etc.

Acknowledging mails on company behalf, attending professional/trade union meetings.


Maintaining self-developed network of outside people who give information Informational Roles

Monitor Disseminator

Evaluating information Transmit the information received from outsiders to insiders of organization Transmit information to companys outsiders Decisional Roles

Reading periodicals and examining annual reports Holding board meetings and passing on information received from outside. Holding press meetings etc.


Entrepreneur Disturbance Handler Resource Allocator Negotiator

Improvement, bringing changes in organization Giving solutions to unexpected actions Responsible for allocating organizational resources Representing the organization at major negotiations,

Making Strategies, developing products/services Solving quarrels Delegating duties and resources Participating in union contracts etc.

Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership


Leadership Management Skills

A Leader can posses three types of skills:

Technical Skills:
Knowledge and proficiency in a particular field, like computers, engineering, accounting etc. These skills are important to Lower level of managers, as they deal with workers.

Human Skills:
The ability to work well with other people, both individuals and groups. Because managers deal directly with people, this skill is crucial. They learn how to communicate, motivate and negotiate. Equally important to all levels of managers.

Conceptual Skills:
The ability to think about abstract and complex situations. This skill helps in decision making, hence it is most important to Top managers.
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Personality Traits of Leaders

Traits are distinguishing personal characteristics. Personality, at the same time, is a combination of traits, that state the behavior of an individual. Understanding personality is important because, personality affects behavior.

Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership


Another Way To Look At It

Personal characteristics Behavior Situation Behavior



Personality Traits of Leaders

Traits of effective leaders can be given as:

Dominance Sensitivity to Others High Energy


Internal Locus of Control




Self Confidence


Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership


Personality Traits of Leaders

Dominance here talks about, governance and taking charge of things. Effective leaders take charge, and possess the ability to govern the followers. However, they are never overly bossy or use a bullying style.

High Energy:
Leaders drive hard to achieve goals. They have enthusiasm for doing things without giving up, and the stamina to tolerate stress, they also have high tolerance to frustration, and overcome it effectively. Leaders take initiative to bring about improvements. However, they are not viewed as pushy.

Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership


Personality Traits of Leaders

Self-Confidence indicates, whether a person is self assured about their judgments, decision-making, ideas and capabilities. Leaders display self-assurance about their abilities and foster confidence among followers. Self-Confidence also influences individual goals, efforts and task persistence. Leaders are however realistically self-confident, but are not arrogant with know it all attitude.

Locus of Control:
Locus of control is on a continuum between external and internal belief in control over ones destiny. Externalizers believe that they have no control over their fate, and their behavior has little to do with their performance. Internalizers are leaders and they believe they control their fate, and their behavior affects their fate.

Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership


Personality Traits of Leaders

Stability talks about adjustment dimension of the big-five model Stable leaders are more emotionally controlled, secure and positive.

Integrity refers to behavior that is honest and ethical, making person trustworthy. Honesty refers to truthfulness of the leader. Trustworthiness is an important part of leaders success, to form long-term relationships, trust is very essential. The ability to influence depends a lot on integrity of the leader. Unless the leader is trustworthy it is difficult to obtain the loyalty of the followers, which in turn results cooperation and support by the followers. It is related to Conscientiousness dimension of Big-Five model of personality traits.
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Personality Traits of Leaders

Flexibility is agreeableness with others. It also talks about adjustment with others. It includes traits related to getting along with people. A leader is flexible if he is warm, easygoing, compassionate, friendly and sociable. Besides this, it also refers to ability of leaders to adjust in different situations.

Sensitivity to Others:
Sensitivity to others refers to understanding group members as individuals, what are their positions, how to best communicate and influence them. To be sensitive to others require empathy. Sensitivity is very important while playing the Negotiator role by the leader. To build good relationships with followers, this trait is useful.

Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership


Personality Traits of Leaders

Intelligence refers to cognitive ability of leaders to think critically, to solve problems, to take decisions. It is the intellectual skill of the leaders. It refers to the Openness to Experience dimension of Big-Five model of personality traits.

Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership


Big-Five Model of Personality Traits



BigFive Model



Openness to Experience

Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership



Teena Y. Sharma

Intro. to Leadership