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SIGMUND FREUD

PowerPoint Presentation by Bettyann Zevallos


The majority of the information found on this slide show is taken from our classroom textbook. Myers, David, G. Psychology. 2004 I will site all additional sources used at the end of the presentation.

Sigmund Freud was a very controversial personality theorist, and was an Austrian physician (page 6).

Sigmund Freud constructed his theory of personality from a handful of case studies (page 26).

Bertha Pappenheim Anna O

Sergei Pankenjeff Wolfman

According to Freud dreams have 2 components: (pages 281-282)

Manifest Content-the storyline of our dreams-sometimes incorporates traces of previous days experiences and preoccupations.

Latent Content-censored symbolic version-consists of unconscious drives and wishes that may be threatening if expressed directly.

Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalytic Perspective

1856-1939

I was the only worker in a new field.


Love him or hate him, Sigmund Freud has profoundly influenced Western culture. To recognize his influence, we need to understand Freuds ideas concerning the unconscious, psychosexual stages, and mechanisms for defending anxiety. (page 576)

Personality Theory According to Freud


(pages 575-586)

Personality is defined in our textbook as follows:


Our characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

Freuds psychoanalytic perspective proposed that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality. Freud called his theory and associated techniques psychoanalysis. Unconsious-large below the surface area which contains thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories, of which we are unaware. Free association-the patient is asked to relax and say whatever comes to mind, no matter how embarrassing or trivial.

Personality Structure according to Freud


ID-a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives to survive, reproduce, and aggress. The id operates on the pleasure principle: If not constrained bu reality, it seeks immediate gratification.

Ego-the largely conscious, executive part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates the demands of the id, superego, and reality.
The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the ids desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain. Superego-represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscious) and for future aspirations.

Freuds Psychosexual Stages

Oral

STAGE
(0-18 months)

FOCUS

Pleasure centers on the mouth-sucking, chewing, biting Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings

Anal

(18-36 months)

Phallic

(3-6 years)

Latency

(6 to puberty)

Dormant sexual feeling

Genital

(puberty on)

Maturation of sexual interest

Important Psychosexual Stage Theory Vocabulary


Oedipus complex-a boys sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

Identification-the process by which, children incorporate their parents values into their developing superegos

Fixation-a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved.

DEFENSE MECHANISM
Tactics that reduce or redirect anxiety in various ways, but always by distorting reality. (page 580)
1. 2. 3. Repression Regression Reaction formation banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts and feelings from consciousness retreating to an earlier, more infantile stage of development the ego unconsciously makes unacceptable impulses look like their opposites Attributing ones own unacceptable threatening impulses to others offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for ones actions shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet

4.

Projection

5.

Rationalization

6.

Displacement

ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS


Projective Tests

Thematic Apperception Test-a test in which people view ambiguous pictures and then make up stories.
Rorschach Inkblot Test-a set of 10 inkblots, seeks to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the inkblots.

Citations
I will first cite the classroom textbook followed by photographs and map citations as they appear in the PowerPoint presentation.

Myers, David, G. Psychology. 2004. Worth Publishers.

Halberstadt, Max. Sigmund Freud. 1921. Freud Conflict and Culture http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/Freud/images/vc008467.jpg] (June 18, 2004).

Map of Austria. Portals of the World from the World Factbook. [http://www.loc.gov/rr/international/european/austria/au.html] (June 18, 2004).

Photograph of Bertha Pappenheim (Anna O).1880. Freud Conflict and Culture. [http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/Freud/images/vc009108.jpg] (June 18, 2004).

Photograph of Sergei Pankejeff with Wife Theresa. Freud Conflict and Culture. [http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/Freud/images/vc008466.jpg] (June 18, 2004).

Schmutzer, Ferdinand. Sigmund Freud, Chalk on Paper. Freud Conflict and Culture. [http://loc.gov/exhibits/Freud/images/vc91.jpg] (June 18, 2004).