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**• Discuss Test 1 • Review
**

– Kirchoff's Rules for Circuits – Resistors in Series & Parallel

• RC Circuits

Text Reference: Chapter 27, 28.1-4

Current- a Definition

If there is a potential difference between two points then, if there is a conducting path, free charge will flow from the higher to the lower potential. The amount of charge which flows per unit time is defined as the current I, i.e. current is charge flow per unit time.

dq I dt

UNIT: Ampere = A = C/s

i.e. no longer electrostatics.

Devices

• Resistors:

Purpose is to limit current drawn in a circuit. Resistors are

basically bad conductors. Actually all conductors have some resistance to the flow of charge.

• Resistance

Resistance is defined to be the ratio of the applied voltage to the current passing through.

R I I V

UNIT: OHM = W

1 m long. for a copper wire. it is harder if L is large. 1mm radius. r ~ 10-8 W-m.Resistivity • Property of bulk matter related to resistance : The flow of charge is easier with a larger cross sectional area. then R . E I A L The constant of proportionality is called the resistivity r The resistivity depends on the details of the atomic structure which makes up the resistor (see chapter 27 in text) eg.01W .

• Measure current I • Does ratio (V/I) remain constant?? V slope = R V Only true for ideal resisitor! I .Ohm's Law • Demo: I R I • Vary applied voltage V.

R1 and R2. are made of identical material. V Lecture 11. R2 has twice the length of R1 but half the radius of R1. the current flowing in R2? (a) I1 < I2 (b) I1 = I2 (c) I1 > I2 • The resistivity of both resistors is the same (r).• Two cylindrical resistors. therefore I2 V V 1 I1 R 2 8R1 8 . the current flowing in R1 . • Therefore the resistances are related as: L 2 L1 L R2 r 2 r 8r 1 8R1 A2 ( A1 / 4 ) A1 • The resistors have the same voltage across them. CQ 1 – These resistors are then connected to a battery V as shown: I I 1 2 – What is the relation between I1. and I2 .

e1 II R11 R R22 R + IR2 e22 e + e2 0 + IR1 . Move clockwise around circuit: e11 e . the algebraic sum of the changes in potential must equal zero.Kirchoff's First Rule "Loop Rule" or “Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)” "When any closed circuit loop is traversed.sign in this equation." Vn 0 KVL: loop • • This is just a restatement of what you already know: that the potential difference is independent of path! RULES OF THE ROAD: We will follow the convention that voltage drops enter with a + sign and voltage gains enter with a .

"At any junction point in a circuit where the current can divide (also called a node). the sum of the currents into the node must equal the sum of the currents out of I in I out the node. ." • This is just a statement of the conservation of charge at any given node.Kirchoff's Second Rule "Junction Rule" or “Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL)” • In deriving the formula for the equivalent resistance of 2 resistors in parallel. we applied Kirchoff's Second Rule (the junction rule).

the current is the same through both ! This reduces the circuit to: R2 a c Reffective Hence: R effective (R1 + R 2 ) c .Vb IR1 Va .Vc IR 2 I a R1 b Va .Vc I(R1 + R 2 ) Whenever devices are in SERIES.The Voltage “drops”: Resistors in Series Vb .

R2 I2.V 0 V d a I I R • How is I related to I 1 & I 2 ?? Current is conserved! I I1 + I 2 V 1 1 1 + R R1 R 2 V V V + R R1 R 2 d I .Resistors in Parallel • • What to do? V IR Very generally. Similarly.V 0 I2 R2 . devices in parallel have the same voltage drop a I I1 R1 I2 R2 • But current through R1 is not I ! Call it I1. KVL I1R1 .

Loop Demo R1 b a e1 f R4 I I c d e R2 KVL: Vn 0 loop e2 R3 IR1 + IR 2 + e 2 + IR 3 + IR 4 .e1 0 I e1 .e 2 R1 + R 2 + R 3 + R 4 .

– The switch is initially open and the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I0. – What is the relation between I0 and I1? R I 12 V 12 V R 12 V (a) I1 < I0 (b) I1 = I0 (c) I1 > I0 . – Just after the switch is closed. the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I1. CQ 2 Consider the circuit shown.• Lecture 11.

– After the switch is closed. – The switch is initially open and the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I0.• Lecture 11. CQ 2 Consider the circuit shown. the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I1. – What is the relation between I0 and I1? R 12 V a I 12 V R 12 V b (a) I1 < I0 (b) I1 = I0 (c) I1 > I0 • Write a loop law for original loop: -12V -12V + I0R + I0R = 0 I0 = 12V/R • Write a loop law for the new loop: -12V + I1R = 0 I1 = 12V/R .

• Therefore. CQ 2 Consider the circuit shown. the current after the switch is closed is equal to the current after the switch is closed. Lecture 11. . the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I1. – The switch is initially open and the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I0. when the switch is closed. – After the switch is closed. • From symmetry.• …or. NO additional current will flow! • Therefore. (Va-Vb) = +12V. – What is the relation between I0 and I1? R 12 V a I 12 V R 12 V b (a) I1 < I0 (b) I1 = I0 (c) I1 > I0 • The key here is to determine the potential (Va-Vb) before the switch is closed.

2e 2 I2 1 3R R e3 R e + e 2 .Junction Demo Junction: I1 I 2 + I 3 e1 R I1 I2 I3 Outside loop: I1R + I 3R + e 3 .e1 0 2e .2e 3 I3 1 3R .e 2 .e1 0 e2 Top loop: I1R + e 2 + I 2 R .e 3 I1 1 3R e + e 3 .

a I R b I Q 1 Ce RC 2RC f( x ) 0.5 e C q 0 00 1 t 2 x t/RC 3 4 .

Overview of Lecture • RC Circuit: Charging of capacitor through a Resistor • RC Circuit: Discharging of capacitor through a Resistor Text Reference: Chapter 27. 28.4.6 . 28.2.

RC Circuits Add a Capacitor to a simple circuit with a resistor Recall voltage “drop” on C? I R I e C Upon closing circuit Loop rule gives: Recall that Substituting: Differential Equation for q! .

Compare with simple resistance circuit • Simple resistance circuit: – Main Feature: Currents are attained instantaneously and do not vary with time!! • Circuit with a capacitor: – KVL yields a differential equation with a term proportional to q and a term proportional to I = dq/dt. charge builds up on the capacitor. – Initially. the voltage drop across an uncharged capacitor = 0 because the charge on it is zero ! – As current starts to flow. it then becomes more difficult to add more charge so the current slows . • Physically. the voltage drop is proportional to this charge and increases. what’s happening is that the final charge cannot be placed on a capacitor instantly.

q RC Integration constant Integrating both sides we obtain. If there is no initial charge on C then: Thus. The differential equation is easy to solve if we re-write in the form: dq e C . Exponentiating both sides we obtain. dq dt e C . Determines integration constant .q dt RC or equivalently.We have to find q such that is satisfied.

0183156 0 0 1 2 t 3 4 .t / RC 1 ce RC 2RC ( ) Max = Ce 63% Max at t=RC f( x ) 0.5 q Q 0 0 0 1 2 x t/RC t 3 4 I dq e .5 I Max = e/R 0.e .Charging the Capacitor Charge on C q Ce 1 .t / RC e dt R Current 1 e/R 1 f( x ) 0.

Lecture 12. – What is the value of the current I0+ just after the switch is thrown? e C (a) I0+ = 0 (b) I0+ = e/2R (c) I0+ = 2e/R R 1B – What is the value of the current I after a very long time? (a) I = 0 (b) I = e/2R (c) I > 2e/R . CQ 1 a I R b I 1A • At t=0 the switch is thrown from position b to position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged.

therefore the voltage drop across the capacitor = 0! • Applying KVL to the loop at t=0+. CQ 1 1A • At t=0 the switch is thrown from position b to position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged. the capacitor still has no charge. a I R b I e C – What is the value of the current I0+ just after the switch is thrown? (a) I0+ = 0 (b) I0+ = e/2R R (c) I0+ = 2e/R • Just after the switch is thrown.Lecture 12. IR + 0 + IR .e = 0 I = e /2R .

a I R b I e C – What is the value of the current I0+ just after the switch is thrown? (a) I0+ = 0 (b) I0+ = e/2R R (c) I0+ = 2e/R 1B – What is the value of the current I after a very long time? (a) I = 0 (b) I = e/2R (c) I > 2e/R • The key here is to realize that as the current continues to flow. CQ 1 1A • At t=0 the switch is thrown from position b to position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged. • As the charge on the capacitor continues to grow. the voltage across the capacitor will increase. . • The voltage across the capacitor is limited to e. the current goes to 0. the charge on the capacitor continues to grow.Lecture 12.

– At time t=t1=t. CQ 2 At t=0 the switch is thrown position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged. the charge Q1 on the capacitor is (1-1/e) of its asymptotic charge Qf=Ce. – What is the relation between Q1 and Q2 .• Lecture from position b to 12. the charge on the capacitor at time t=t2=2t? a I R b I e C R (a) Q2 < 2 Q1 (b) Q2 = 2 Q1 Hint: think graphically! (c) Q2 > 2 Q1 .

– What is the relation between Q1 and Q2 .5 q decreases with time. the charge Q1 on the capacitor is (1-1/e) of its asymptotic charge Qf=Ce. Q2 < 2Q1. Q2 • In fact the rate of increase is just Q1 proportional to the current (dq/dt) which f( x ) 0. Q t 2t 2 0 0 1 3 4 . the charge on the capacitor at time t=t2=2t? e C R (a) Q2 < 2 Q1 (b) Q2 = 2 Q1 (c) Q2 > 2 Q1 •The charge q on the capacitor increases with time as: • So the question is: how does this charge increase differ from a linear increase? 2Q1 • From the graph at the right. it is clear that 1 the charge increase is not as fast as linear.• At t=0 the switch is thrown from position b to position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged. a I R b I – At time t=t1=t. • Therefore.

- C initially charged with Q=Ce Connect switch to b at t=0. Calculate current and charge as function of time. • Loop theorem • Convert to differential equation for q: e .RC Circuits (Time-varying currents) • Discharge capacitor: a b I R I + + C .

RC Circuits (Time-varying currents) • Discharge capacitor: • Solution: a b I R I + + C .- e • Check that it is a solution: Note that this “guess” incorporates the boundary conditions: ! .

RC Circuits (Time-varying currents) • Discharge capacitor: a b I R I + + C .- • Current is found from differentiation: e Conclusion: • Capacitor discharges exponentially with time constant t = RC • Current decays from initial max value (= -e/R) with same time constant .

Discharging Capacitor RC Charge on C q = C ee -t/RC Max = Ce 37% Max at t=RC 1 C1 e 2RC f( x ) 0.t / RC dt R Current f( x ) 0.5 I t 3 4 .e .5 q 0.0183156 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 x t 3 4 4 I Max = -e/R 37% Max at t=RC 0 -e/R 0 1 2 x Q dq e .

the switch is thrown from position a to position b. – Which of the following graphs best represents the time dependence of the charge on C? R e C 2R (a) (b) (c) .• Lectureposition a CQ 3 12. a b – At t = t0. At t=0 the switch is connected to in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged.

the capacitor is discharging with time constant t = 2RC • (a) has equal charging and discharging time constants • (b) has a larger discharging t than a charging t • (c) has a smaller discharging t than a charging t .5 (b) q f ( x ) 0.5 0 0 0 t0 1 2 x t/RC 3 4 t 0 0 0 t0 1 2 x t/RC 3 4 t 00 0 t0 1 2 x t/ RC t • For 0 < t < t0. the capacitor is charging with time constant t = RC • For t > t0.• At t=0 the switch is connected to position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged. the switch is thrown from position a to position b. – Which of the following graphs best represents the time dependence of theCe charge on C? 1 R e C 2R Ce 1 (a) f( x )q 0.5 Q Q (c) x )q 0. a b Ce 1 – At t = t0.

t / RC ( ) 4 f( x ) 0.5 q Ce 1 .e .t / RC dt R 3156 0 0 1 2 Q t 3 4 0 -e/R 0 1 2 t 3 4 .Charging 1 Ce Discharging 1 1 Ce RC 2RC RC 2RC f( x ) q 0.0183156 3 0 0 1 2 x t 3 4 4 1 0 0 I f( x ) 0.5 q q = C ee -t/RC 0 0 1 e/R 1 0 1 2 x t/RC t 0.5 dq e .e .5 I I dq e .t / RC I e dt R f( x ) 0.

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