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Human diseases

(Infectious, Non- Infectious and Deficiency disease)

Our health is affected by our habits, food and our environment. Sometimes our health is endangered and diseases are cause by malfunctioning of body activities, psychological reasons or pathogenic infections. Diseases means a condition in witch functioning of body organs is impaired due to any reason.

Diseases are broadly grouped into two types

Communicable diseases These diseases are caused by the attack of pathogens like virus, bacteria, fungi or protozoan. These pathogens can be transmitted from one person to another person through air, water, food, vectors and physical contacts. Such diseases are called communicable diseases because they are infected from a diseased person to a healthy person. Non-communicable diseases The diseases that are not transmitted from a diseased person to a healthy person are called non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, arthritis, coronary diseases, cancer etc. Certain noncommunicable diseases are also caused by the deficiency in diet which are known as deficiency diseases.

Malaria, influenza, jaundice, cholera, diarrhea, tuberculosis etc are the common diseases occurring in large scale in our country. Rabies and AIDS are very dreadful and fatal communicable diseases.

Name of pathogen: A protozoan parasite (1) PLASMODIUM VIVAX (2) PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM

Causes of Disease or Transmission

Infection is normally transmitted to a person by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. After infection Plasmodia enter the erythrocytes and destroy them. The patient shivers from head to foot and temperature goes on rising.

The patient gets fever with rigor and extreme cold, sudden rise in temperature and then fever comes down with profuse sweating. This occurs with definite intermittent periodicity repeatedly. Headache Body ( muscular) pains Nausea and vomiting Pathogens attack erythrocytes ( Red blood corpuscles) and destroy them.

Preventive Measures
Use of wire-gauze of doors and windows to prevent the entry of mosquitoes in the house Use of insect-repellents Use of bed mosquito nets during sleeping Stay away from humid and damp places After diagnosis of malaria, immediately contact doctor and start treatment as per his advice.

Tablets or injections of a drug named Quinine can be taken on the advice of doctor

Name of the pathogen : a virus called Myxovirus influenza.

Sneezing Frequent coughing Low grade fever Nasal secretions Body ache Laziness

Prevention Measures
Always remain away from the flu patients.

There is no effective control

Name of pathogen: a bacterium vibrio cholerae.

Bacteria entered in the intestine produce a definite toxin which causes burning sensations in intestine, as a result it does not absorb the water. This causes copious and incessant watery vomits and diarrhea. The stool has rice water appearance and foul odour. Person feels thirsty and if drinks water immediately starts vomiting.

Preventive Measures
Always drink pure boiled water Eat fresh cooked food Clean the water tanks and wells Killing the causative flies to prevent breeding Keep the house and surroundings clean Patient should be transferred to hospital Immunization by standard cholera vaccine.

Patient should be immediately admitted to the infectious disease ( ID ) hospital Oral rehydration therapy can be used Dehydration can be prevented by giving ORS at intervals.

Name of the pathogen: viruses- HIV There are two types of viruses namely (1) HIV- 1 (2) HIV- 2

Blood to blood- blood transfusion from HIV positive person Getting blood products from HIV positive person

Pain and fatigue can be visible for about four weeks Diarrhea accompanied with blood Loss of appetite Loss of weight Fungal infection in the mouth and throat Occurrence of pneumonia

Deficiency Disease
Every individual requires adequate amount of nutrients in their diet for their growth and development as well as maintenance of health. If insufficient nutrients are consumed in diet several nutritional disorders occurs, which are called deficiency diseases.

A disease caused by inadequate intake of vitamin C.

Bleeding from gums and swelling due to inflammation Loosening at tottering of teeth Bleeding into muscles and joints, causing pains Weakness in body, fatigue Loss of body weight Wound healing is delayed

Control and preventive Measures

Scurvy can be treated and cured with tablets of vitamin C, on the advice of doctor Once the disease is cured continuing supply of sufficient of vitamin C is necessary to prevent Scurvy

The most common cause of rickets in childhood, is deficiency of vitamin D Vitamin D is synthesized in our skin in the presence of sunlight

There is bowing of patients legs The knock knee makes the child feel difficulty in walking Deformity of ribs

Control and Prevention

A child with rickets is treated with vitamin D supplements, such as, cod-liver oil, fishes, milk, eggs-yolk etc for control and prevention of disease Drugs or tablets containing vitamin D can be taken on the advice of a doctor to control the disease.

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