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Inorganic Chemistry ACS 0301

Dr. Mahnaz M. Abdi

E- mail: First semester 2012
Lecture1: Chemistry and Matter



ASSESSMENT TEST 1: WEEK 5 15% TEST 2: WEEK 10 20% LAB REPORT: 15% PRESENTATION (TUTORIAL): 10% FINAL: 40% REFERENCE BOOK: Kenneth W.Whitten, Raymond Davis, Larry Peck, George G.Stanley, General chemistry, 7th. Ed., THOMSON, Brooks/Cole
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ASC 0301 TOPIK Chemistry and Matter Unit and Measurement The Structure of Atoms Atomic Mass Mole Concept Concentrations of Solutions


ASC 0301 TOPIK Periodic Table

Periodicity Chemical bonding Ionic Bond Covalent Bond Polar Bond VSPER Theory Valence Bond Theory Intermolecular Solubility Forces and


5 6

Chemical Reactions
Stoichiometry of Reactions Electromagnetic radiation Atomic Model Introduction to Quantum Theory Electronic configuration

11 12 13


Important Elements in Firtilizer Important elements in Industry (PRESENTATION)


Lecture1: Chemistry and Matter

Chemistry and Matter

Chemistry Classification of Matter Atoms Molecules Elements, substances and compounds Mixtures States and Properties of Matter Changes of matter

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Learning Outcomes
Classify samples of matter as pure substances, homogeneous mixtures, heterogeneous mixtures, compounds, and elements. Recognize various form of matters. Relate names to formulas and

charges of simple ions.

Combine simple ions to write formulas and names of some ionic compounds.

What is Science ? SCIENCE is the qualitative and quantitative study of nature and the natural laws What is Chemistry ? CHEMISTRY is a science that examines the composition, properties and changes of matter. What is Matter ? Anything that have mass and occupy space, and can generally be perceived by our senses (color, texture, odor, hardness, and taste)

Disciplines of Chemistry
Major traditional chemistry disciplines :

Inorganic Physical Organic Analytical

Study of
Non-carbon-containing substance (ASC 0301) Structure and changes of matter (ASC 0302) Substance containing carbon (ASC 0303) Composition of matter

Disciplines of Chemistry
A vast area of study & research; can be divided into traditional, modern, applied chemistry etc

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Higher T
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Lower T

Properties of Matter
Matter exhibits two types of properties : Physical property is displayed by

a sample of matter without undergoing any change in its composition It includes mass, color, temperature volume, density, melting point, etc.
Chemical property is displayed by a

sample of matter as it undergoes a change in its composition. This includes flammability, toxicity, reactivity, acidity, corrosiveness, etc.


Changes of Matter
In a physical change, there is no change in composition; no

new substances are formed (without changes in chemical identity). Examples: evaporation, melting, solubility, crystallization
In a chemical change or chemical

reaction, matter undergoes a change in composition; new substance are formed. Examples: corrosion of metals, polymerization of alkene, fermentation of food.


Types of Matter
Matter (may be solid, liquid, Or gas): anything that occupies space and has mass

Heterogeneous matter: Non uniform composition

Physically separable into

Homogeneous matter: uniform composition throughout

Substances: fixed composition; cannot be further purified

Physically separable into

Solutions: homogeneous mixtures; uniform compositions that may vary widely

Compounds: elements united in fixed ratios

Chemically separable into

Elements: cannot be subdivided by chemical or physical changes


Combine chemically Lecture1: Chemistry and Matter to form

Element, Substance and Compound

Substance is matter that has a definite composition and do

not vary from one sample to another. Substances are either elements or compounds
Element is matter that cannot be broken down into simpler

substances by chemical reaction.

Compound is made up of two or more elements, chemically

bonded in definite proportions and can be broken down into simpler substances.
Terms Substance and Compound are often used

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A mixture can contain two or more different components in varying proportions.
A homogeneous mixture has the same composition

throughout a sample of matter. components are indistinguishable. Examples: alloy, air, salt water. A heterogeneous mixture varies in composition from one part of the mixture to another. Components are distinguishable. Examples: Mixture of salt and charcoal.



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In chemistry, a pure substance has characteristic physical

and chemical (phys/chem) properties. Cannot be broken down by physical means. Pure substances are elements or compounds.

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A chemical substance made up of two or more

elements in fixed ratio. More than 20 million compounds are known. Cpds have characteristic phys/chem properties. Cannot be resolved into its constituent elements via physical means.

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Fundamental type of matter that cannot be chemically broken down.
There are 116 known elements with 90 occurring

naturally; shown on the Periodic Table Building blocks for all substances. Classified as metals (75%), nonmetals (20%) or metalloids (5%). Elements have characteristic phys/chem properties

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The building blocks of matter; the smallest unit of matter that participates in a chemical reaction.

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A molecule is the smallest particle of an element that can have a stable independent existence. Usually have two or more atoms bonded together Examples of molecules: H2 O2 S8 NaCl H2O CH4



Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev 1869

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Noble gases Halogens

Alkaline earth metals

Alkali Metals


Chemical Formulas
Chemical formula shows the chemical composition of the substance. Ratio of the elements present in

the molecule or compound.

Monatomic elements: He, Au, Na

Diatomic elements: O2, H2, Cl2 More complex elements: O3, S4, P8 Compounds: H2O, NaCl, C12H22O11 Substance consists of two or more elements
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Ions Cations consist of one atom

Group 1
Li+ , lithium ion Na+ , sodium ion

Group 2
Be2+ , beryllium ion Mg2+ , magnesium ion

Group 3
Al3+ , aluminium ion

K+ , potassium ion
Rb+ , rubidium ion Cs+ , cesium ion

Ca2+ , calcium ion

Sr2+ , strontium ion Ba2+ , barium ion

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Transition Metals and Post-Transition metals

Cr2+, chromium(II) ion Cr3+ , chromium(III) ion Mn2+, manganese (II) ion Mn3+ , manganese (III) ion Fe2+, iron(II) ion Fe3+, iron(III) ion Cu+, copper(I) ion Cu2+ , copper(II) ion Sn2+, tin(II) ion Sn4+ , tin(IV) ion Pb2+, lead(II) ion Pb4+ , lead(IV) ion

Anions consist of one atom

H-, hydride
C-, carbide

N3-, nitride
P3-, phosphide

O2-, oxide
S2-, sulfide

F-, fluoride
Cl-, chloride

Si4-, silicide

As3-, arsenide

Se2-, selenide

Br-, bromide

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Polyatomic ions contain more than one atom.

NH4+, ammonium H3O+, hydronium OH-, hydroxide CN-, cyanide NO2-, nitrite CO32-, carbonate HCO32-, hydrogen carbonate SO32-, sulfite HSO32-, hydrogen sulfite SO42-, sulfate

NO3-, nitrate
ClO-, hypochlorite ClO2-, chlorite ClO3-, chlorate ClO4-, perchlorate

CrO42-, chromate
Cr2 O72-, dichromate PO43-, phosphate HPO42-, mono hydrogen phosphate H2PO42-, dihydrogen phosphate

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Ionic Compounds
Potassium chloride: KCl = K+ + ClCalcium sulphate: CaSO4 = Ca2+ + SO42Sodium carbonate: Na2CO3 = 2Na+ + CO32Barium nitrate: Ba(NO3)2 = Ba2+ + 2NO3Ammonium phosphate: (NH4)3PO4 = 3NH4+ + PO43Chromium(III) chloride: Cr(Cl)3 = Cr3+ + 3ClIron(II) sulphite: FeSO3 = Fe2+ + SO32-

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Unit and Measurement

Imperial System Metric System System International (SI) Accuracy and Precision Significant Figures

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Modern Chemistry
As of 1850s onwards, chemists used weighing balance more

systematically to measure mass (a quantity of matter) in their research

Since then, better equipments and devices were progressively

invented and used; then chemistry involves doing all sorts of measurements (simple and complex; visual and aided)
So, what is it that chemists measure? All sort of properties of

matter - distance, vol., temp., time, energy, area, density, velocity, frequency, luminescence, light absorbance ... etc
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Scientific measurement and unit

All measurements contains 2 essential pieces of information:
1) a number (the quantitative piece) 2) a unit (the qualitative piece)

The number 50 is somewhat meaningless without Units. Consider this: Daily wage = RM50/day wt of an egg = 50g/egg size of a square paper = 50cm x 50 cm
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Properties of Matter
Intensive A quality of a pure substance which is independent of quantity color, melting point, hardness Extensive A quality of a pure substance which is dependent on quantity mass, volume

What are other intensive or extensive properties?

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Scale, Unit and Standard

Results of a measurement are always expressed in some kind of a

scale that is defined in terms of a particular kind of unit

Example : Scale of length British Imperial system French Colonial system Inch = base unit Millimetre = base unit 12 inch = 1 foot*** 10 mm = 1 cm 3 feet = 1 yard 100 cm = 1 metre*** 1760 yards = 1 mile 1000 m = 1 km
For comparison and communication purposes,

the scale must be defined by a standard (a reference value for comparison)

The scales of length are related & interconvertible by

a conversion factor 2.54 cm = 1 inch 1 cm = 0.3937 inch


Imperial System of Unit

Still being used in Britain and USA

Weight ounce, pound, ton 16 oz = 1 lb; 14 lb = 1 stone; 2240 lb = 1 ton

Length inch, foot, yard, mile 12 inches = 1 foot; 3 feet = 1 yd; 5280 feet = 1760 yds = 1 mile Volume cup, pint, quart, gallon 2 cups = 1 pint; 2 pints = 1 quart; 4 quart = 1 gal
Not employed in scientific work since 1960s

Confusing and have to memorize many conversion tables


Metric System of Measurement

Basic/fundamental units/types of measurements are :

Type Mass Length Volume Time Energy

Name gram metre litre second joule

Symbol g m L s J

Simple and easy system of measurement Units of measurement can be multiplied or divided by

a factor 10
Can use prefixes to change size of unit

Metric System Prefixes

Base units in the Metric System can be converted into units that

are more appropriate for the quantity being measured by adding a prefix to the name of the base unit. Common metric prefixes are:
Prefix Symbol femtof picop nanon micro millim centic decid kilok megaM gigaG teraT Meaning x 1/1,000,000,000,000,000 (10-15) x 1/1,000,000,000,000 (10-12) x 1/1,000,000,000 (10-9) x 1/1,000,000 (10-6) x 1/1,000 (10-3) x 1/100 (10-2) x l/10 (10-1) x 1,000 (103) x 1,000,000 (106) x 1,000,000,000 (109) x 1,000,000,000,000 (1012)

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Systeme Internationale (SI Units of Measure)

Before 1960, Science uses the Metric System of Units After 1960, the International System of Units (SI = Le Systeme Internationale) was proposed.
A modern version of the Metric System of Units. It is used globally in science, industry and commerce as a standard/reference measurement units. The seven base/standard units of the SI system are:

length mass time Electric current Temperature Amount of substance Luminous intensity

meter kilogram second s ampere kelvin mole candela

m kg s A K mol cd

Units outside SI system honorary units

SI has 7 base/fundamental units 3 more are included as honorary members

Base unit 1.
Litre 2. Metric tonne 3. Unified atomic mass unit

L t amu (u)

1 L = 1 dm3 = 103 ml 1 t = 103 kg 1 u = 1.66054 X 10-27 kg


Derived SI units [dimension]

Other units of measurement can be derived by combining one or more of

the 10 SI base units. Some of the common non-SI or derived units used in chemistry are : Physical Quantity Name of derived unit density electric charge coulomb electric potential volt energy joule force newton frequency hertz pressure pascal velocity meters/second volume cubic meter Symbol kg/m3 C (A.s) V (J/C) J (kg-m2/s2) N (kg-m/s2) Hz (s-1) Pa (N/m2) m/s m3

** Symbol of a derived unit is termed the DIMENSION/UNIT of the physical quantity

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Exact numbers
Exact numbers = numbers that are known/exact by definition They are called exact values because they are measured in complete units and are not divided into smaller parts. Examples of exact values: 17 people; 28 cars Conversion factors have an infinite (never ending) number of significant figures.
Examples: 60 seconds in one minute 1000 meters in one kilometer 7 days in one week 1 inch = 25.4 mm 1 yard = 36 inches
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Measured numbers
Measured numbers = an actual estimated reading:

(a) as shown by meters/detectors of instruments (b) by visual account from calibrated/graduated equipment (burette, pipette) (c) from mathematical calculations (average, standard deviation)
Measurements by these methods have inherent uncertainty

or experimental errors

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Chemistry is an experimental science; it involves measurements of

properties of matter
Measuring properties of matter involves 3 parameters:

(a) magnitude/quantity (b) base unit or dimension (c) uncertainty/error

Example: weighing a sample of salt

(a) average magnitude = 5.7076 (b) base unit = gram (c) uncertainty (using 4 different balances) 5.6785 g; 5.702 g; 5.65 g; 5.8 g
So, what is the true/real weight of the salt sample?
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Types of experimental errors


Instruments not calibrated properly Reagents are not correctly and properly prepared Imperfections/limitations of instrument and glassware can be improved by proper calibration, adherence to strict preparation procedures, use more sensitive and reliable instruments, run control/blanks ... etc

Tests done at different times, different room T ... etc Personal mistakes and carelessness Can be improved by tight control of environmental factors, replication of tests, applying appropriate statistical analyses on data obtained ...etc

Uncertainty in measurement
Measurement of a property of matter involves 2 parameters

(A) PRECISION = degree of reproducibility i.e.

(a) how close are the measurements to each other (b) how well they agree with each other
(B) ACCURACY = how close measurements are to the

true/accepted value
AIM = experimental measurements must be as precise

and accurate as possible; i.e. least possible errors

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Accuracy vs Precision
Accuracy refers to the proximity of
a measurement to the true (accepted) value of a quantity.

Precision refers to the proximity

of several measurements to each other.

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Accuracy vs Precision
In the real world, we never know whether the

measurement we make is accurate. Why not?

We make repeated measurements; calculate

the mean, x and the standard deviation, s,

We hope (but not always correctly) that good

precision implies good accuracy.

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Uncertainty in measurements
Different measuring devices have different uses and different degrees of accuracy.


Uncertainty in measurements
The smallest division of this graduated cylinder is 1 mL. Therefore, our reading error will be 0.1 mL or 1/10 of the smallest division. An appropriate reading of the volume is 36.5 0.1 mL. An equally precise value would be 36.6 mL or 36.4 mL. The smallest division in this buret is 0.1 mL. Therefore, our reading error is 0.01 mL. A good volume reading is 20.38 0.01 mL. An equally precise answer would be 20.39 mL or 20.37 mL.

Significant figures
Determining the number of significant figures Scientific notation

Addition & Substraction

Multiplication & Division Rounding off

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Significant figures
When we measure quantities, esp. for the very first time, it is

difficult to know if measurement is accurate.

To know if a measurement is accurate, you need to know its

true value. If you knew its true value, then, you dont need to do the measurement!
But, it is easy to know if your measurements are precise.

One indicator of the preciseness of a measurement is the number of significant figures in a measured number.
Significant figures relate to certainty of the measurement.

As the number of significant figures increases, the more certain is the measurement.
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Number of significant figures

Significant figures = number of digits that expresses the result to

the true measured precision

Example: Consider a number


(5 sig. Figures)

Start from the left and count the digits. There is

5 significant figures in this number

DO NOT worry about the decimal point !!

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Zeroes in significant figures

Zeroes are special digits Sometimes they count as a sig. digit,

sometimes they dont. It depends on their position. Example: 0.092060 has 5 significant figures
First two zeroes are not significant, they

are just position holders

So, when counting significant digits, always

start from the left and don't start counting until you meet the first non-zero digit. Then everything after that counts, including the zeroes !!


Rules for counting significant figures are summarized below

Leading zeros are not significant. 0.421 has three significant figures. Zeros within a number are always significant. Both 4012 and 40.05 contain four significant figures. Trailing zeros in the whole number are not significant. Thus, 470,000 has two significant figures. Trailing zeros that aren't needed to hold the decimal point

are significant. For example, 114.20 has five significant figures.


Scientific notation
A good way to avoid problems of significant and non-significant

zeroes is to use scientific notation


920000 = 9.2 x 105 0.092067 = 9.2067 X 10-2 0.092 = 9.2 X 10-2 0.0920 = 9.20 X 10-2

Has 2 sig. figs. Has 5 sig. figs. Has 2 sig. figs. Has 3 sig. figs.

When using scientific notation, all digits including zeroes are



Rounding off
Chemistry is an inexact science All physical measurements have some error Thus, there is some inexactness in the last digit of any number Use what ever round-off procedures you so choose Reasonably close answers are acceptable
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Rounding significant figures

A salt sample is weighed 3 times:

12.4330 g

12.4334 g 12.4335 g

6 sig. figures

Calculate the average:

(12.4337 + 12.4334 + 12.4335) / 3 = 12.43353333 (calculator display)

Makes no sense to write down all the numbers; average value

cannot be more precise than that of the measurements. Need to round off the number to the correct number of sig. figures. In this case Insignificant digits 3333 are dropped 2.43353333 is rounded off to 6 sig. figures; i.e.12.4335
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Rounding off numbers

When insignificant digits are dropped from a number, the last digit should be rounded for best accuracy Example :

To determine how the last digit should be rounded, convert

the digits to be dropped to a decimal fraction ( .333333); then follow the rules for rounding numbers

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Rules for rounding numbers to the correct number of significant figures


If the decimal fraction is greater than , add one to the last digit retained If the decimal fsraction is less than , do not change the last retained digit If the decimal fraction is exactly , add one to the last digit retained if it is odd



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Examples Round off 9.473, 9.437, 9.450 & 9.750 to 2 sig. figures.
For 9.473 the last digit retained is 4; decimal fraction is .73. So Rule #1 applies; 9.473 is rounded to 9.5 For 9.437 the last digit retained is 4; the decimal fraction is .37. So Rule #2 applies; 9.437 rounded to 9.4 For 9.450 the last digit retained is 4; the decimal fraction is .50. So Rule #3 applies; 450 is rounded to 9.4 For 9.750 the last digit retained is 7; the decimal fraction is .50. So Rule #3 applies; 9.750 is rounded to 9.8
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Lecture1: Chemistry and Matter