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PRESENTED BY A.R.MOUNIKA
. • Captchas based on these AI problem families. but current computer programs can't pass: any program that has high success over a captcha can be used to solve an unsolved Artificial Intelligence (AI) problem • We introduce two families of AI problems that can be used to construct captchas and we show that solutions to such problems can be used for steganographic communication. an automated test that humans can pass.Abstract • We introduce captcha. then. imply a Win-win situation: either the problems remain unsolved or there is away to differentiate humans from computers or the problems are solved and there is a way to communicate covertly on some channels.
Contents • • • • • • • • Introduction Applications of the Captcha Definition and Types of Captcha Text based Captcha Image based Captcha Audio based Captcha Conclusion References .
• Automated programs (often referred to as bots) have been designed to attack a variety of services. • For example.INTRODUCTION • CAPTCHAs: Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart • With an increasing number of free services on the internet. attacks are common on free email providers to acquire accounts . we find a pronounced need to protect these services from abuse.
Blogs.APPLICATIONS WHERE THE CAPTCHA IS USED • • • • Free email services Online polls Dictionary attacks Newsgroups. etc… • SPAM .
Image based CAPTCHA 3. Audio based CAPTCHA .Definition & Types of CAPTCHA • “A CAPTCHA is a cryptographic protocol whose underlying hardness assumption is based on an AI problem.” • TYPES OF CATCHA: 1. Text based CAPTCHA 2.
Types of CAPTCHA .
The text also consists of some noise such as background.TEXT BASED CAPTCHA • In the text based captcha the testing is done by giving the data in the distorted manner and making that text more complex so that the user can’t easily find the text. the contrast colors that make the text invisible clearly • Most text based CAPTCHAs have been broken by software –OCR –Segmentation .
• Generate CAPTCHA • Align CAPTCHA • Cut CAPTCHA • Transform CAPTCHA • Decode CAPTCHA Process of decoding the CAPTCHA .
Image based CAPTCHA • To address this. In designing a new CAPTCHA. Easy to generate and evaluate . the basic tenets for creating a CAPTCHA should be kept in mind: • 1. Easy for most people to solve • 2. Difficult for automated bots to solve • 3. numerous alternate CAPTCHAs (including image based ones) have been proposed.
• In the next section. we will review the many systems that attempt to determine an image’s upright orientation. we are careful not to provide the user with a small set of images to compare. their success is. • Any similarity computation must be done against the entire set of images possible – without any a priori filtering clues given.• In the CAPTCHA we propose. when tested in realistic scenarios. • The success of our CAPTCHA rests on the fact that orienting an image is an AI-hard problem. limited to a small subset of image types . • Although a few systems achieve success.
G. B). it computes a number of simple transformations on the image. Q (linearly scaled to span 0-255). A detailed examination of a recent machine learning approach is given below. • 15: Vertical edge image computed from intensity . • 7-9: Normalized version of R. I. G. I. the overall architecture is typical of many current systems. yielding 15 single-channel images: • 1-3: Red. G. • 4-6: Y. B) Channels. Q (transformation of R. • LEARNING IMAGE ORIENTATION: The particular machine learning tools and features used make this orientation detection system distinct.1. When the orientation detection system receives an image. G.It is incorporated in our system to ensure that the chosen images are difficult for computers to solve 2. • 10-12: Normalized versions of Y. B) Channels. Green. • 14: Horizontal edge image computed from intensity. • 13: Intensity (simple average of R. Detecting the orientation: • The classes of images that are easily oriented by computers are explicitly handled in our system. B (linearly scaled to span 0-255). Blue (R.
• Typical audio CAPTCHAs consist of one or several speakers saying letters or digits at randomly spaced intervals. background noise is injected into the audio files. audio CAPTCHAs were created. specifically automatic speech recognition (ASR) programs. .Audio based CAPTCHA • Because visually impaired users who surf the Web using screen-reading programs cannot see this type of CAPTCHA. To make this test difficult for current computer systems. • A user must correctly identify the digits or characters spoken in the audio file to pass the CAPTCHA.
Because we are unable to find any formal technical analysis of this program. 2.Classifier construction 3.• In early March 2008. and it is unclear what their exact pass rate is.Recommendation for the stronger Captcha • • • .Assessment of the current audio Captcha’s 4. concurrent to our work. So this lead to the process of the following events: 1. the blog of winter core Labs claimed to have successfully broken the Google audio CAPTCHA. we are unconvinced that the process is entirely automatic. we can neither be sure of its accuracy nor the extent of its automation.Creation of the training data. After reading their Web article and viewing the video of how they solve the CAPTCHAs.
occasionally yielding results in which a segment only contained half of a word. by ensuring that the number of negative training samples is closer to the number of positive training samples. • We also believe that the AdaBoost results can be improved. causing our prediction to contain that particular word twice. We have shown that our approach is successful and can be used with many different audio CAPTCHAs that contain small finite vocabularies . • We believe our results can be improved by selecting optimal segment sizes. even though these were developed with the purpose of defeating attacks by machine learning techniques.Conclusion • We have succeeded in “breaking” three different types of widely used audio CAPTCHAs. segment sizes were not chosen in a special way. but that is unnecessary given our already high success rate. particularly for the Digg audio CAPTCHAs. • For our experiments.