DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER SYSTEMS ECn 5241
Prepared by Mr. najahr Reg; No.
stroke’s theorem and helmholtz’s theorem with examples
. analysis of divergence theorem.Objectives
Give an idea about DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER SYSTEMS and LUMP PARAMETER SYSTEMS with examples
Discuss about Del (∇ ) operator and ( it associated functions Discuss.
. Etc. Velocity of the fluid.. Transmission lines. Ex.... Fluid pressure.
.DPS & LPS
MODELS OF PHYSICAL SYSTEMS
LUMP PARAMETER SYSTEMS
DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER SYSTEMS
Distributed parameter system is a system which the Parameters of system vary according to space and time. these system can be described mathematically by Partial Differential Equations. Temperature of the
fluid at different points.
RLC circuit model. Hybrid parameters in electronic system. •
A system whose state space is • Variables spatially distributed are represented as single scalars infinite dimensional
• Inputs reach system parameters System parameters are affected by inputs after some simultaneously. differential equations. • System is described using • System is described using ordinary partial differential equations. that mean lump parameters are always depend on the space.DPS & LPS
The lump parameter system is a system witch reaches each element simultaneously. There is no propagation time. There is no time propagation time.
i. its attenuation) using lumped element parameters. L
V (t ) = L di (t ) dt
General transmission line: a closed system in which power is transmitted from a source to a destination
If the cable is much shorter than the wavelength of the signal passing through it you can model the influence of the cable (e.DPS & LPS
“The same physical system can be modeled using a distributed parameter model in some situations while using a lumped parameter model in other situations”. C. impedance Z is a simple function of R.
The line voltage V(x) and the current I(x) can be expressed in the frequency domain as
∂( ) V x ∂ x ∂x I ) ( ∂ x = ( R +jω ) I ( ) − L x = (G +jω ) ( ) − C V x
Distributed parameters -propagation velocity-vector -series inductance per unit length (H/m)-scalar -shunt capacitance per unit length (F/m).scalar
. Then we have to use distributed parameters to describe the cable and properties like the impedance is now a function of position Z(x).scalar -series resistor per unit length (ohm/m). if the frequency is so high that the length of the cable is of the same order of magnitude as the wavelength of the signal this obviously won't work.DPS & LPS
However. simply because phenomena like standing waves (and more generally impedance mismatch) become important. the parameters are distributed.scalar -conductance (shunt resistor) per unit length(C/m).e. i.
∇ (Del operator)
This can be considered as a vector whose component in the three principle directions of a Cartesian. cylindrical and spherical coordinate system are partial differentiations with respect to those three directions
cartesian cylindrical spherical
∂ ∂ ∂ +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ ∇ = er + eϕ + ez ∂r r ∂ϕ ∂z ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∇ = eR + eϑ + eϕ ∂R r ∂ϑ rsin ϑ ∂ϕ ∇=i
z) is: Grad f ≡∇f
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂f ∂f ∂f ∇ f = i + j + k f ⇒ i + j + k ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂y
Ex: In furnace which concentration given by a scalar field f. The magnitude of the gradient will tell how fast it changes concentration in that direction.z). Then.y. the gradient (∇ f) at that point will show the direction in which it changes concentration most quickly. Consider the scalar field f (x.
.y. we assume that the concentration does not change in time.z) the concentration is f(x.∇f (Gradient)
Measure the Rate and the direction of change in a scalar field. so at each point P(x.z) In rectangular coordinates.y. at each point in liquid.y. The gradient of function f (x.
V = 0 0 density of the fluid Divergence cani.F (Divergence)
unit volume as volume tends to zero.. In rectangular coordinates system. If. Thus divergence of a fluid field indicates the rate at which fluid flows away from the point per unit volume.V < the fluid is compressing is constant .
∂ ∂ ∂ ∇ F = i . compressing (Sink at origin) If.∇ . divergence = 0 . +j +k • F1 i + F2 j + F3 k ∂y ∂z ∂x
=i ∂F3 ∂F1 ∂F2 +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z
Source at origin Sink at origin
Divergence of a vector field is a measure of the strength of the flux emanating from a point. ∇ . divergence > 0 . Sun rays come out continuously from sun. expanding (Source at origin) If.e. neither expanding nor compressing Ex: From a charged body. divergence < 0 .. there is a continuous outflow of flux.
. neither expanding outward flux of a vector F per defined as the net nor compressing
∇.V > 0 fluid is expanding ∇ .
∇ × F (Curl)
This is a vector whose magnitude is the maximum net circulation of F per unit area as the area tend to zero and whose direction is the normal direction of the area when the area is oriented to make the net circulation maximum. The 'curl' of the field is defined as... Curl F ≡ ∇ x F (cross product of ∇ & F )
we can obtain curl F for a vector field in Cartesian coordinates by expanding following determinant
i ∇×F = ∂ ∂ x F1
j ∂ ∂ y F2
k ∂ ∂ z F3
If Curl F >0 Then the vector field is said to be rotating.∇×F
This is a measurement of a vector field’s tendency to rotate about a point.
. If Curl F=0 Then the vector field is said to be irrotational. such a field is said to be conservative. the direction of ∇×F is the direction of the axis of rotation.
∇ (Laplacian operator)
The Laplacian operator ∇ 2 is called as a scalar differential operator and can act on either a scalar field ‘f’ or vector field ‘F’. where the function f is the scalar potential of the velocity field
. ∇ 2 f = 0. the irrotational flow of an incompressible fluid is determined by laplace's equation.(
Vector Field Scalar Field
In fluid mechanics. It describe both rotational properties and compressibility of the fluid
Vector Field Scalar Field
F dv = ∫ F. To find charge enclose by a surface Here we Gauss’s Law
Q ∫E. ε ε ε v v s
Application of the theorem.
ρ ρ Q ⇒∫∇Edv = ∫ dv ⇒∫E.Divergence theorem
Volume integral of divergence of a vector field is equals to total outward flux through the closed surface that bounds the volume
s It converts a volume integral of the divergence of the vector to a closed surface integral of the vector and vice versa.ds = .ds =
∇E = .
nds = ∫ F .dl
It converts a surface integral of the curl of the vector to a closed line integral of the vector and vice versa. l ⇒ = V − ∫ d t d t
.ds = × − ∫ ∂ t d t s . ∫B ds
X S C
∇ E = ∂ × − B
dφ − E d = dφ .Surface integral of curl of a vector function over and open surface is equals to the closed line integral around contour c bounding the open surfaces
Stokes’ s theorem
∫(∇×F). Application of the theorem In electromagnetic to evaluate Faraday’s law
e f m (V ) = dφ − d t d ⇒ ∇ E.
This theorem enables to specify any general vector as a sum of solenoidal and irrotational field by decompressing it into a solenoidal and irrotational part. An irrotational field can represent by gradient of scalar field and a solenoidal field by as the curl of a vector field.Helmholtz's Theorem
A vector field is determined to within an additive constant if both divergence and curls are specified in every where. Thus any vector function as sum of gradient of a scalar function and curl of a vector field.
A consequence of the theorem F = -∇ φ + ∇ x A
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