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Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras

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Section 9 Members subjected to

Combined Forces

(Beam-Columns)
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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SECTION 9 MEMBER SUBJECTED TO
COMBINED FORCES

9.1 General
9.2 Combined Shear and Bending

9.3 Combined Axial Force and Bending Moment

9.3.1 Section Strength
9.3.2 Overall Member Strength
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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Secondary effects on beam behaviour
Elastic
Bending stress
Elastic Shear stress
Plastic range
a
b
c
9.2 Combined Shear and Bending
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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9.2 Combined Shear and Bending
Sections subjected to HIGH shear force > 0.6 Vd
a) Plastic or Compact Section



b) Semi-compact Section



M
fd
= plastic design strength of the area of c/s excluding the shear
area and considering partial safety factor
V = factored applied shear force; Vd = design shear strength

( )
0
2 . 1
m y e fd d d dv
f Z M M M M | s =
( )
2
1 / 2 =
d
V V |
0
/
m y e dv
f Z M =
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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9.3 Combined Axial Force and Bending Moment
DESIGN OF BEAM COLUMNS
INTRODUCTION

SHORT & LONG BEAM-COLUMNS Modes of failure
Ultimate strength
BIAXIALLY BENT BEAM-COLUMNS

DESIGN STRENGTH EQUATIONS
Local Section Flexural Yielding
Overall Member Flexural Buckling

STEPS IN ANALYSING BEAM-COLUMNS

SUMMARY
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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INTRODUCTION
Occurrence of Beam Columns
x
y
z
Eccentric Compression
Joint Moments in Braced Frames Rigid
Sway Moments in Unbraced Frames
Biaxial Moments in Corner Columns of
Frames

Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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SHORT BEAM-COLUMNS
P
=
P
y
Axial
compression
M
P

Bending
moment

F
c
M
Combined
compression and
bending, P & M
f
y
f
y
f
y
f
y
f
y
f
y
f
y
f
y
f
y
+
M
P
y
= A
g
*f
y
M
p
= Z
p
*f
y


Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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SHORT BEAM-COLUMNS

Failure
envelope
1.0
O
1.0
M
o
/M
p
M
max
/M
p
M/M
p
Short column
loading curve
P
cl
/P
y
P
0
/P
y
P/P
y
M / M
P
s 1.0
P

/ P
y
+ 0.85 M / M
P
s 1.0
P/P
y
+ M/M
p
s 1.0 (conservative)
M = P e
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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LONG BEAM COLUMNS
Linear
Non-Linear

o
o
0

M
0

P *o
M
0

Non Sway Frame
M
max
= M
o
+ Po
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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LONG BEAM-COLUMNS

Sway Frames
A
0

A
M
0

M
M = M
o
+ PA
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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LONG BEAM-COLUMNS

B
M
0
0.5
0.8
P/P
cr =
0.0
1.0
u
0.8
O
1.0
P .
P
cr

M
0
/M
P
= 0.0
o
A
0.1
0.5
|
.
|

\
|

=
E
0
P
P
1
o
o
|
.
|

\
|

=
E
0
P
P
1
A
A
|
.
|

\
|

=
E
0 m
max
P
P
1
M C
M
C
m
accounts for moment gradient effects
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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LONG BEAM-COLUMNS

Failure Envelope
M
o
/M
p
Long columns
loading curve
Short column
loading curve
F
cl
/P
cs
F
0
/P
cs
F
c
/P
cs
Eqn. 3
M
max
/M
p
M / M
P

1.0
1.0
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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SLENDER BEAM-COLUMNS
Modified Strength Curves for Linear Analysis

After correction
for (P-o) effect
F
c
/P
cs
F
cl
/P
cs
M
y
/M
py

Short column
failure envelope
After correcting for sway and
bow (P-A and P-o)
1.0
1.0
P*
A
P*
o
Minor axis bending
A
1.0
Major axis bending
M
x
/M
px
F
c
/P
cs
F
cl
/P
cs
After
correction
for (P-o) effect
Short column
failure envelope
After correcting for sway
and bow (P-A and P-o)
1.0
Uniaxial Bending
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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BEAM-COLUMNS / BIAXIAL BENDING
F
cl
/P
cs
M
y
/ M
py

M
x
/M
px
Fig. 8 beam-columns under Biaxial Bending
/r = 0
/r increases
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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9.3 Combined Axial Force and Bending Moment

9.3.1 Section Strength
9.3.1.1 Plastic and Compact Sections





9.3.1.3 Semi-compact section f
x.
s f
y
/
m0

9.3.2 Overall Member Strength

9.3.2.1 Bending and Axial Tension

s M
d


0 . 1
2 1
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
o
ndz
z
ndy
y
M
M
M
M
0 . 1 s + +
dz
z
dy
y
d
M
M
M
M
N
N
| | A Z T M M
c
e eff
/ =
0 . 1 s + +
dz
z z
dy
y y
d
M
M K
M
M K
P
P
0 . 1 s + +
dz
z
dy
y
d
M
M
M
M
N
N
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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9.3.2.2 Bending and Axial Compression
C
my
, C
mz
= equivalent uniform moment factor as per table 18
Also C
mLT

0 . 1 6 . 0 s + +
dz
z mz
z
dy
y my
y
dz
M
M C
K
M
M C
K
P
P
0 . 1 s + +
dz
z
LT
dy
y my
y
dy
M
M
K
M
M C
K
P
P
z dy z y
mLT
y
mLT
y LT
LT
z y z y z y z y
P P n
C
n
C
n
K
n n K
/ /
/ / / /
/
) 25 . 0 (
1 . 0
1
) 25 . 0 (
1 . 0
1
8 . 0 1 ) 2 . 0 ( 1
=

>

=
+ s + =

Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras


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STEPS IN BEAM-COLUMN ANALYSIS
Steps in Beam-Column Analysis
Calculate section properties
Evaluate the type of section
Check using interaction equation for section
yielding
Check using interction equation for overall
buckling
Beam-Column Design
using equivalent axial load
z z mz y y y my eq y
M m C M m u C P P + + =
,
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras
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SUMMARY
Short Beam-Columns Fail by Section Plastification

Slender Beam-Columns may Fail By
Section Plstification
Overall Flexural Yielding
Overall Torsional-Flexural Buckling

Intetaction Eqs. Conservatively Consider
P-o and P-A Effects

Advanced Analysis Methods Account for P- o and P- A
Effects, directly & more accuraely