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Leadership

What is leadership?
Leading people
Influencing people Commanding people Guiding people
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Types of Leaders
Leader by the position achieved Leader by personality, charisma Leader by moral example Leader by power held Intellectual leader Leader because of ability to accomplish things
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Managers vs. Leaders


Managers Focus on things Do things right Plan Organize Direct Control Follows the rules Leaders Focus on people Do the right things Inspire Influence Motivate Build Shape entities
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TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP


People are born with inherited traits.
Some traits are particularly suited to leadership. People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits. Stogdill (1974) identified the following traits and skills as critical to leaders.

Traits
Adaptable to situations Alert to social environment Ambitious and achievement-orientated Assertive Cooperative Decisive Dependable Dominant (desire to influence others) Energetic (high activity level) Persistent Self-confident Tolerant of stress Willing to assume responsibility

Skills
Clever (intelligent) Conceptually skilled Creative Diplomatic and tactful Fluent in speaking Knowledgeable about group task Organised (administrative ability) Persuasive Socially skilled

BEHAVIOURAL THEORY
Assumptions

Leaders can be made, rather than are born.


Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior. Description

Behavioral theories of leadership do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. Rather, they look at what leaders actually do.
Discussion

Behavioral is a big leap from Trait Theory, in that it assumes that leadership capability can be learned, rather than being inherent.

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OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY STUDIES


HIGH CONSIDERATION BEHAVIOUR

HUMAN RELATIONS

DEMOCRATIC

LAISSEZ FAIRE

AUTOCRATIC

LOW LOW INITIATING STRUCTURE BEHAVIOUR HIGH

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BLAKE & MOUTONS MANAGERIAL GRID

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Impoverished Management (1.1) Minimum effort to get the work done. A basically lazy approach that avoids as much work as possible. Task Management (9.1) Strong focus on task, but with little concern for people. Focus on efficiency, including the elimination of people wherever possible. Country Club management (1.9) Care and concern for the people, with a comfortable and friendly environment and collegial style. But a low focus on task may give questionable results. Middle of the road management (5.5) A weak balance of focus on both people and the work. Doing enough to get things done, but not pushing the boundaries of what may be possible. Team management (9.9) People are committed to task and leader is committed to people (as well as task).
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m e n t t o t h e d e c i s i o n . S e v e r a l p e o p l e

PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP
Assumptions Involvement

in decision-making improves the understanding of the issues involved by those who must carry out the decisions. People are more committed to actions where they have involved in the relevant decision-making.

People are less competitive and more collaborative when they are working on joint goals.
When people make decisions together, the social commitment to one another is greater and thus increases their commitment to the decision. Several people deciding together make better decisions than one person alone. 14

d e c i d i n g

Kurt

and colleagues did leadership decision experiments in 1939 and identified three different styles of leadership, in particular around decision-making. Autocratic In the autocratic style, the leader takes decisions without consulting with others. The decision is made without any form of consultation. Democratic In the democratic style, the leader involves the people in the decision-making, although the process for the final decision may vary from the leader having the final say to them facilitating consensus in the group. Laissez-Faire The laissez-faire style is to minimize the leader's involvement in decision-making, and hence allowing people to make their own decisions, although they may still be responsible for the outcome. Laissez-faire works best when people are capable and motivated in making their own decisions.
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Lewin

Rensis Likert identified four main styles of leadership, in particular


around decision-making and the degree to which people are involved in the decision. Exploitive authoritative: In this style, the leader has a low concern for people and uses such methods as threats and other fear-based methods to achieve conformance. Communication is almost entirely downwards and the psychologically distant concerns of people are ignored. Benevolent authoritative: When the leader adds concern for people to an authoritative position, a 'benevolent dictatorship' is formed. The leader now uses rewards to encourage appropriate performance and listens more. Although there may be some delegation of decisions, almost all major decisions are still made centrally. Consultative: The upward flow of information here is still cautious. The leader makes genuine efforts to listen carefully to ideas. Nevertheless, major decisions are still largely centrally made.

Participative: At this level, the leader makes maximum use of participative methods, engaging people lower down the organization in decision-making. People across the organization are psychologically closer together and work well together at all levels.
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Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership


Leaders should adapt their style to follower development style (or 'maturity'), based on how ready and willing the follower is to perform required tasks (that is, their competence and motivation). There are four leadership styles (S1 to S4) that match the development levels (D1 to D4) of the followers. The four styles suggest that leaders should put greater or less focus on the task in question and/or the relationship between the leader and the follower, depending on the development level of the follower.

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TASK BEHAVIOUR
LOW HIGH HIGH RELATIONSHIPLOW TASK HIGH HIGH RELATIONSHIPHIGH TASK

S3

S2

S4

S1

LOW

LOW RELATIONSHIPLOW TASK

LOW RELATIONSHIPHIGH TASK

M4

M3

M2

M1
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MATURITY OF FOLLOWERS

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Situational Factors
Leader-Member Relation

High Control
Good

Moderate Control
Neutral

Low Control
Poor

Task Structure
Position Power

High
Strong

Medium
Moderate

Low
Weak
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HIGH CONTROL SITUATION: Task motivated leaders will be able


to relax and can become slightly considerate towards their subordinates, leading to high performance. Relation-oriented leaders do not find much challenge in such situation,so they do not get opportunity to use their interpersonal skills.

MODERATE CONTROL SITUATION: Relation oriented leaders


perform best because they are able to accomplish task-goals by using their interpersonal skills. Task oriented leaders are so busy in the completion of their tasks that they are not able to deal patiently with their subordinates.

LOW CONTROL SITUATION: Task motivated leader are able to


provide the direction needed by the employees.Under chaotic conditions people are more concerned with the direction rather than interpersonal behaviour. Relation oriented leader feel hesitant towards making decisions without consulting others.

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