CAM and Follower MECHANISM
A cam may be defined as a machine element having a curved outline or a curved groove, which, by its oscillation, rotation or reciprocating motion, gives a predetermined specified motion to another element called the follower .
It is usually consists of a cam (the driver), the follower (the driven element), and the frame (the support for the cam and the follower).
PARTS OF CAM MECHANISM
Classification of Cams According to Shape
. Made up of a flat plate or disc with an edge profile to transmit motion. Mostly use type of cam.Radial/Disc/Plate Cam
The follower moves in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the cam.
. which drives the follower vertically.Translation/Wedge Cam
The cam moves over and back. reciprocating motion.
The follower may translate or oscillate.
The roller follower operates in a groove cut on the periphery of a cylinder.
this rotary cam has a groove cut within which a constrained follower moves. The groove ensures no need for a return spring.Face cam
In its flat surface.
In this case the end of the cylindrical cam has the profile machined on the end.
Classification of Follower
Reciprocating follower Follower arrangement
It is usually use for reciprocating motion. running in slides and there is considerable side thrust.Knife edged follower
This is the simplest type and not often used due to the rapid rate of wear.
Uses a roller and eliminates rapid wear of follower.
This has the advantage that the only side thrust present is that due to the friction between the follower and the cam.
.The spherical face of the follower has a large radius that compensates for detrimental deflection or misalignment that may occur with the flat mushroom follower.
According to motion of the follower
. The amount of offset is the distance between these two center lines.
the center line of the follower does not pass through the center line of the cam shaft.In-line follower
the center line of the follower passes through the center line of the camshaft. The offset causes a reduction of the side thrust present in the roller follower.
rotates or oscillates as the cam is in rotational motion.
and its motion describes the movement of the follower. Base circle : The circle with the shortest radius from the cam center to any part of the cam profile. It is used to generate the pitch curve.CAM Nomenclature
Cam profile: The outer surface of the disc cam.
. Trace point: It is a point on the follower.
Pitch point: Pitch point corresponds to the point of maximum pressure
. Prime circle: The smallest circle from the cam center through the pitch curve Pressure angle: The angle between the direction of the follower movement and the normal to the pitch curve.Pitch curve : The path generated by the trace point as the follower is rotated about a stationery cam.
Pitch circle: A circle drawn from the cam center and passes through the pitch point is called Pitch circle Stroke: The greatest distance or angle through which the follower moves or rotates
Uniform motion ( constant velocity) Simple harmonic motion Uniform acceleration and retardation motion
.Types of follower motion
Fall (Return stroke) the downward motion of the follower caused by cam motion.
.A period is a part of the cam cycle and it includes the following:
Rise (Outstroke) the upward motion of the follower caused by cam motion. Dwell the stationary position of the follower caused by cam motion.
.Modes of Input / Output Motion
cam-translating follower Rotating follower The follower arm swings or oscillates in a circular arc with respect to the follower pivot. Translating cam-translating follower Stationary cam-rotating follower The follower system revolves with respect to the center line of the vertical shaft.
The Cam operated valve system can be found in modern car engines and incorporates a number of cams. the valves are opened by cams.and six-lobed cams govern the spark distribution and many car petrol oil pumps are cam driven.
.1 . four.The most well known use of cams is in car engines.
These are used in feed mechanism In automatic lathe machine
4. 5 .
. Cams convert rotary oscillating or linear motion into a linear or reciprocating action to carry out useful work. These are used in paper cutting machine. It is use in textile machine
6. These are used in wall clock
3 .2 .
Gravity constraint The weight of the follower system is sufficient to maintain contact. Constraints on the Follower
In all cam systems it is important that the follower is always in contact and following the motion of the cam.
.VI. Spring constraint The spring must be properly designed to maintain contact.
Positive mechanical constraint A groove maintains positive action. Example is the Constantdiameter cam shown in the left.
SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION