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Revised Penal Code

The law on trespass can be found in Chapter Two , Section Two of the Revised Penal Code. It is classified as a crime against security. *Dwelling - a house, apartment, or other place of residence.

Art. 280 Qualified trespass to dwelling.


Any private person who shall enter the dwelling of another against the latters will shall be punished by arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos. If the offense be committed by means of violence or intimidation, the penalty shall be prision mayor in its medium and maximum periods and a fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos.

1 Entering anothers dwelling for the purpose of preventing some serious harm to self 2 Occupants of the dwelling or a third person 3 Entering a dwelling to render service to humanity or justice 4 Entering cafes, taverns, inns and other public houses while the same are open

Art. 281 Other forms of trespass.


The penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos, or both, shall be imposed upon any person who shall enter the closed premises or the fenced estate of another, while either or them are uninhabited, if the prohibition to enter be manifest and the trespasser has not secured the permission of the owner or the caretaker thereof.

Gabriel and Natividad vs People of the Philippines and CA


Case on Trespass to dwelling

Facts
Appellants Gabriel and Natividad asked Court of Appeals to reverse the judgment on their case regarding trespass to dwelling.

Facts
Sherman Jones and wife Josefina Jones owned a home wherein the electric meter of which was installed on a wall in a balcony, visible from the porch. Accused arrived the Jones residence and met Mrs. Jones at the porch and subsequently introduced themselves as inspectors for Meralco.

Facts
Accused asked Mrs. Jones for the presence of Mr. Jones; Mrs. Jones subsequently told accused to wait on the porch and went inside the house, closing the door behind her. While Mrs. Jones went to inform her husband of the presence of the Meralco inspectors, accused Gabriel inspected the meter and shouted to his co-accused Natividad, Naty, atras ang contador.

Facts
Accused Natividad then rushed into the house and then entered the bedroom where Mr. And Mrs. Jones were, pushing the door with such force that it brushed aside Mrs. Jones who was behind it. Accused Gabriel followed and the two searched for a gadget that they suspected to be in Mr. Jones possession that would allow him to steal electric fluid.

Facts
Counsel of the accused argued that his clients were exempt from criminal liability on the grounds that the entry was done in rendering service to justice, and that they allegedly found Mr. Jones hiding a transformer in an aparador.

Facts
Court of Appeals did not believe the counsel of the accused and found the claim to be a vain effort on the part of the appellants to fit the facts of the case to the provisions of the Revised Penal Code to the effect that a person who enters a dwelling for the purpose of rendering service to justice, is not guilty of trespass.

Ruling
Court of Appeals believed that accused merely suspected that a transformer was in the house.

Issue
Whether or not Gabriel and Natividad are indeed guilty of trespass to dwelling

Ruling
Yes. The suspicion alone of the accused did not warrant their right to enter the dwelling against the will of the owner, more so that accused did not possess a search warrant

Ruling
Court of Appeals said that the porch is an open part of the house, and being allowed to wait there under the circumstances mentioned can in no sense be taken as entry to a dwelling with the consent of the dweller Court of Appeals affirms the decision of the lower courts, with costs against the appellants.

AN ACT TO EXEMPT THE PUBLISHER, EDITOR OR REPORTER OF ANY PUBLICATION FROM REVEALING THE SOURCE OF PUBLISHED NEWS OR INFORMATION OBTAINED IN CONFIDENCE

Sen. Vicente Sotto


- Is the author of the Republic Act 53 - October 5,1946 RA53 - Press Freedom Law or Shield Law

RA 53
Section 1. The publisher, editor or duly accredited reporter of any newspaper, magazine or periodical of general circulation cannot be compelled to reveal the source of any news report or information appearing in said publication which was related in confidence to such publisher, editor or reporter, unless the court or a House of committee of Congress finds that such Revelation is demanded by the interest of the state

Conditions
Publisher Editor Columnist duly accredited reporter of any newspaper, magazine or periodical of general circulation

In re Parazo
FACTS: ANGEL PARAZO duly accredited reporter of the Star (local daily of general circulation) Claim Leak in the Last Bar Tests appeared front page in Star on Sept. 14, 1948 Justice Padilla Chairman of the Committee of Bar Examiners; Commissioner Jose de la Cruz and Soriano Clerk of Court cite Parazo for questioning and investigation

In re Parazo
Sept. 18, 1948 investigation transpired Parazo said he wrote the story and published it in GOOD FAITH and in SPIRIT OF PUBLIC SERVICE He knew the persons who gave him the information which is the basis of his publication but he declined to reveal their names because the information was given to him in confidence. His informants id not wish to have their identities revealed He invoked the benefits of RA 53

In re Parazo
Issue: Whether or not Angel Parazo should be held in contempt even if he invoked the benefits of RA 53

In Re Parazo
Ruling: The phrase "interest of the state" is quite broad and extensive the Supreme Court as representative of the Judicial Department, to adopt proper and adequate measures to preserve their integrity, and render possible and facilitate the exercise of their functions, including, as in the present case, the investigation of charges of error, abuse or misconduct of their officials and subordinates, including lawyers, who are officers of the Court. We find that the interest of the state in the present case demands that the respondent Angel J. Parazo reveal the source or sources of his information which formed the basis of his news items or story in the September 14, 1948 issue of the Star Reporter,

Phrase: Interest of the State


phrase in R.A. 53 was not limited to national security or public safety situations "interest of the State" included matters of national importance such as principal functions of Government like the administration of justice. (the administration of justice would be obstructed by the reporters refusal to disclose their source for their news reports.)

RA 1477
Section 1. Without prejudice to his liability under the civil and criminal laws, the publisher, editor, columnist or duly accredited reporter of any newspaper, magazine or periodical of general circulation cannot be compelled to reveal the source of any news-report or information appearing in said publication which was related in confidence to such publisher, editor or reporter unless the court or a House or committee of Congress finds that such revelation is demanded by the security of the State."

Exemptions
House or committee of Congress finds that such revelation is demanded by the security of the State.

Security of the State


the standard of evidence from "interest" to "security" of the State would make it considerably more difficult to require journalists to reveal their sources.

You cannot invoke RA 53


cannot invoke such right as a shield against liability for printing stories that are untrue and derogatory of the courts, or others. no immunity from prosecution for libel or for other sanction under law

Discovery & Revelation of Secret


[Art. 290-292 of C3]

Prision correccional, suspension, and destierro. The duration of the penalties of prision correccional, suspension and destierro shall be from six months and one day to six years, except when suspension is imposed as an accessory penalty, in which case, its duration shall be that of the principal penalty. l

TERMS and definitions

TERMS and definitions


Arresto mayor The duration of the penalty of arresto mayor shall be from one month and one day to six months.

Art. 290. Discovering secrets through seizure of correspondence

Art. 290. Discovering secrets through seizure of correspondence

Penalties: prision correccional If papers or letters were seized and contents were revealed. fine not exceeding 500 pesos NOTE: If offender shall not reveal such secrets, penalty will be reduced to arresto mayor and fine not exceeding 500 pesos.

The Anti-Wiretapping Law


Republic Act 4200 is probably the most quoted law nowadays. Thus, it is worthy to examine the said law and discuss its pertinent provisions.

TERMS and DEFINITIONS


Wiretapping
- the practice of connecting a listening device to a telephone line to secretly monitor a conversation.

Section 1: An Act to Prohibit and Penalized Wire Tapping and Other Related Violations of Private Communication and Other Purposes

it shall be unlawful for any person, not being authorized by all the parties to any private communication or spoken word, to tap any wire or cable, or by using any other device or arrangement, to secretly overhear, intercept, or record such communication or spoken word by using a device commonly known as a dictaphone or dictagraph or detectaphone or walkie-talkie or tape recorder, or however otherwise described.

EXEMPTIONS

Under Section 3 of R.A. 4200, a peace officer, who is AUTHORIZED BY A WRITTEN ORDER OF THE COURT, may execute any of the acts declared to be unlawful in the two preceding sections in cases involving the crimes of treason, espionage, provoking war and disloyalty in case of war, piracy, mutiny in the high seas, rebellion, conspiracy and proposal to commit rebellion, inciting to rebellion, sedition, conspiracy to commit sedition, inciting to sedition, kidnapping as defined by the Revised Penal Code, and violations of Commonwealth Act No. 616, punishing espionage and other offenses against national security.

Issuing written order


Affirmation of the applicant and the witness he may produce A showing that: crimes enumerated hereinabove has been committed or is being committed or is about to be committed reasonable grounds to believe that evidence will be obtained essential to the conviction of any person for, or to the solution of, or to the prevention of, any of such crimes no other means readily available for obtaining such evidence

INADMISSIBILITY OF WIRETAPPED EVIDENCE


Section 4 of R.A. 4200
any information therein contained obtained or secured by any person in violation of the preceding sections of this Act shall not be admissible in evidence in any judicial, quasi-judicial, legislative or administrative hearing or investigation.

SECTION 5. All laws inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or accordingly amended. SECTION 6. This Act shall take effect upon its approval.

Ramirez vs CA
Anti-Wiretapping Law

Facts
Petitioner Ramirez filed a civil case against Ester S. Garcia, alleging that the respondent vexed, insulted and humiliated her in a hostile and furious mood and in a manner offensive to petitioners dignity and personality, contrary to morals, good customs and public policy.

Facts
Petitioner produced a transcript of the event and sought costs against the respondent amounting to P610,000. The transcript was based on a tape recording produced by the petitioner. Respondent filed a criminal case against the petitioner for violation of R.A. 4200, otherwise known as the Anti-Wiretapping Law.

Facts
Respondents complaint cited the petitioner for wilfully, unlawfully and feloniously recording their conversation in secret and thereafter communicating in writing the contents of the recording to another person.

Facts
Ramirez then filed for a Motion for Reconsideration, stating that the applicable section of R.A. 4200 does not apply to the taping of a private conversation by one of the parties involved in the conversation and only to parties other than those involved. Petitioner also argued that R.A. 4200 penalizes private communication and not private convsersations.

Facts
Court of Appeals ruled that the words of the provision are unambiguous, and that the provision will indeed penalize those involved in the private communication. Court of Appeals said that where the law makes no distinctions, one does not distinguish.

Facts
Court of Appeals also addressed petitioners argument regarding private communication and private conversations, saying that narrowing down the meaning of communication was absurd. Court of Appeals stated the definition of the word communication and ruled that it is broad enough to include the conversation that took place between Ramirez and Garcia.

Issue
Whether or not Ramirezs act of secretly recording the conversation with Garcia constitutes and offense punishable by R.A. 4200.

RULING
Yes. The Court of Appeals stated that the provision clearly stated that it is illegal for ANY person to secretly record any private communication unless authorized by all parties involved. Court of Appeals concluded that even a person involved in such communication who records his/her private conversation without the knowledge of the latter qualifies as a violator of aforementioned provision of R.A. 4200.

Ruling
Court of Appeals denies petition of Ramirez for reconsideration on the grounds that the law applied to the case is clear and unambiguous. Costs against petitioner.