Overview of presentation
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Introduction and Definition of PRA Origin of PRA Principles shared by PRA and RRA Exclusive principles of PRA What it is? Definition Principle Components Precepts of PRA Evolution in Details What’s in it? Where it is Applied? Practical Example Criticism Bibliography

  PRA: Introduction and PRA : Participatory Rural Appraisal Definition   Components:  People  Knowledge  Participation  Planning  Action It is a combination of different approaches to  Share  Enhance  Analyze  Plan  Act For the betterment of the rural people with their participation The secrets behind the success of PRA are  Decentralization  Empowerment .

PRA: Origin  PRA has been evolved from RRA (Rapid Rural Appraisal)  In mid 80’s the necessity of participation in rural     development became evident and the term PRA was born The understanding of PRA came mostly from field rather than academia PRA mostly focuses on the empowerment of people through participation The sustainability rate of PRA is high due to the participation of the local people The sense of ownership and belongingness helps to the success of PRA .

 Principles shared by PRA & RRA Reversal of learning  To learn of the local people  Exploration. adaptable  Learning rapidly and progressively  Offsetting bias  To be receptive rather than preconceived ideas  Optimizing tradeoffs  Understanding the usefulness of information  Triangulating  Crosschecking and approximation . flexible methods.

Exclusive Principles of PRA  Empowerment  The authority to local people through decentralization and confidence building  Self critical awareness  Mistakes are lessons to learn and to do better next time  Personal responsibility  The belongingness and ownership to the participants  Sharing  To discuss and argue about ideas in open forum with all stakeholders .

 “PRA methods. experimental. are visual and tangible and usually performed by small groups of people”. (Chambers 2007)  PRA comprised of different research tools to facilitate local people in     Analyzing information Practicing critical self-awareness Taking responsibility Sharing their knowledge of life and conditions to .What it is?  Participatory research is not an alternative research method. as they are often called. but an approach that can be applied to any methodology – survey. qualitative (Lilja and Bellon 2008).

 “ An approach and methods for learning about rural life and conditions from. (Chambers 1994) .Definition  As it has diverse application and has been changing rapidly any effort to define it might be folly and ‘unhelpful’. with and by rural people”.

Principle Components of PRA Source: Chambers 2007. .

Adopted from Chambers 2007 .

(Chambers 1994) Learning is two way system and respondents know better his/her daily encounter. Emphasis on the power relation between the researcher and ‘researched’. from blue prints to learning process”. from centralized to local diversity. Practicing participatory research started since 1983 in Bangladesh. .Evolution  Originally evolved from Rapid Rural Appraisal     and spread fast in the 1990s. Shift in rhetoric: “from top-down to bottom up.

(Chambers 1994) .Evolution  Five streams which stand out as sources and parallels to PRA are.  Rapid rural appraisal.  Field research on farming systems.  Agro-ecosystem analysis.  Applied anthropology. in alphabetical order:  Activist participatory research.

analysis and planning.  The weak and marginalized can and should be improved. catalysts and facilitators.  Can and should do their own investigation. .  Outsiders have roles as a convenors.Activist Participatory Research  The contributions of APR to PRA are more through concepts than methods:  Common ideas:  Poor people are creative and capable.

 Diagramming (Seasonal Calendars.Agro-ecosystem Analysis  Gordon Conway developed this approach in Thailand at the University of Chiang Mai around the year 1978. van or chapati diagrams )  Innovation assessment (scoring and ranking different actions) .  Informal mapping (Sketch maps drawn on site). flow and causal diagrams.  It contributed much in current RRA and PRA through:  Transects (Systematic walks and observation). bar charts.

 The value of field residence. and conversations. and methods. unhurried participant observation.  The importance of attitude.”  Insights and contributions from Applied Anthropology:  Field learning is flexible art rather than rigid science. . insights. behavior and rapport.Applied Anthropology  “PRA represents an extension and application of social anthropological approaches. crossfertilized with others.

. professionalism and rationality of small and poor farmers.  Their experimental mindset and behavior. diversity and risk-proneness of many farming system.Field Research on Farming System  Have contributed to the appreciation and understanding of  Complexity.  The knowledge.  Their ability to conduct their own analysis.

 Cost-effective. .  Disillusion with questionnaire surveys and their confusing results. rural development tourism.Rapid Rural Appraisal  Has three main origins:  Disappointment: anti-poverty bias.

From RRA to PRA .

What’s in it? .

 Project Cycle  From inception to end. Agriculture. Poverty and Social Programs.  Participatory projects pull methods.Where it is applied?  PRA applications include:      Natural Resource Management. Health and Food Security Analysis. attitudes and values from PRA.  ‘Micro projects’ .

unmarried)  PRA in this project  Wealth ranking among the candidates . abandoned.Practical Example  VGDUP. if any is limited to day-laboring or domestic help The household is de facto headed by a women (divorced.04 ha) No ownership of production assets There are no active adult male house hold members Employment.Vulnerable Group Development for Ultra-poor  What are the indicators?      Owning less than 10 decimals of land(0. widow.

Even the term ‘carpet-bombed with PRA’ came forward due to its over utilization. Shortcomings of some methods like community meetings and widespread use of group discussion.” (Cornwall 1996) Remained donor driven and ‘imposed’. according to agendas set by external interests. Methods are often used to extract info’s rather than to empower. . Lack of proper training distorts the overall objectives of this approach.Whose Participation?: The criticism  “.. much of what currently passes as 'participatory'      involves local people taking part in other people's projects..

 Chambers.  Cornwall. IDS. Towards participatory practice: participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and the participatory process in De Koning. Numbers 4–5. Some common questions about participatory research: a review of the literature. Working Paper 286. . Nina and Mauricio Bellon . World Development. 1994.  Chambers.. Andrea. Robert. Participatory Research in Health: Issues and Experiences. 2007. Volume 18. No 7. The Origins and Practice of Participatory Rural Appraisal. Korrie and Martin Marion (1996). Robert. Volume 22.Bibliography  Lilja . pp 953969. London. Zen Books Ltd. August 2008. From PRA to PLA and Pluralism: Practice and Theory. Development in Practice.

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