Learning Systems and their Design

Learning system is an organized combination of people, materials, facilities, equipment, and procedures that interact to achieve a goal. Instructional situation.

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Why learning system is called a system?
Its elements are put together based on some plan

What is a system?
 Is an entity viewed as a whole because its parts are all interacting, interdependent and interrelated as they work towards attaining a goal or set of goals.

What is Systems Concepts?

Systems thinking

 Is part of general systems theory, which is already considered a specialization in itself because general systems theory looks at all disciplines, fields or specializations as interrelated, forming one whole body of knowledge and approaches.
 Points out that reality is complex

Beauty of systems thinking
 It guards us from making narrow, hasty conclusions about reality. Recognizing the complexity of reality, systems thinking shows us that solving problems, such as problems in human learning, does not simply require changing one element in the situation.  Makes us appreciate the order in knowing about the complexity of reality.

Purpose for being of system thinking

Philosophy behind the concept of the learning system
 Recognizing that learning is neither affected not just by the teacher/trainer, nor just by the learner.  The educational communicator sees to it that each element in the learning situation fails in its right place.  He recognizes that each element in the learning system has a goal of its own, which must converge towards ultimately inducing the learning process.

Instructional procedures  Demonstrations and discussions . Materials  Handouts and visuals B).   A). Facilities  Barangay hall or public school room C).

they are concerned with the way these elements make up the whole. Merely putting these elements together does not determine the effectiveness of the whole. . This means that while educational communications recognizes the said learning system to have parts or elements. and not by its parts. Wholeness  The learning system is viewed in terms of its wholeness. but how each element interact with one another to create a harmonious meaning.

 Interaction. these parts are interacting. (c) learning outcome.  in a learning system. interdependence and interrelatedness of parts  A learning system has 3 minimum parts: (a) learner.  The parts of a learning system is interdependent because each one counts and has a role to play. . Meaning that each part acts on one another and vice versa. which the others rely on to be able to perform their respective functions well. (b) instructional procedure.

 Each parts is interrelated because when a change in one part brings changes in other parts causing a change in the entire learning system. Learner Instructional procedure Learning outcome .

The goal is the reason for existing. is related to other systems making up this larger or suprasystem. These tell us that each system may be broken down into parts or subsystems that are complete in themselves.  Levels  Systems may be viewed at various levels. the learning system exist so that they will induce the learning process.  Likewise. . each system is part of a larger system and as such. In the same way. Goal Orientation  A basic element of a system is the goal.


 Balance  As a system. . every instructional situation strives to maintain its balance. A state of balance implies that the various elements of a system are performing their respective functions and are effectively contributing towards achieving the system goals.

e. living things. social entities. Open system. nonliving things. e. Closed system.g. which does not interact with its environment. Attains static balance.  .g. can attain dynamic balance.

and  2. Recognizing dynamic system balance as an important quality of learning system points out that:  1. it may change. A learning system need not remain the same to attain a state of balance. . When in a state of imbalance. a learning system would naturally strive to become balanced.

or all of these may define the boundary of a learning system. its goals and objectives.  -The boundary of a closed system is easy to define. or its scope. As a general guide.Boundary  Every system has a boundary that defines its limits.  In managing learning system. because it does not allow the system to interact with its environment. . such as learning systems. its audience.  -boundaries of open systems. identifying its boundary not only delimits one‟s operations to the learning system concerned but also helps determine if problems affecting it lie within or outside of it. are harder to define.

 Conversion Process  -A learning system is primarily designed to induce the learning process. change takes place in them. This implies that between the time that learners enter and leave a learning system. Such a conversion process takes place in a system so that its subsystems can serve its goals and objectives .

interdependent and interrelated as they work towards attaining a goal or set of goals. Shrode (1974) pointed out two (2) dimension of a system.  The learning system as an entity but viewed as a whole because its parts are all interacting. .  The first dimension.

 the systems approach is essentially the scientific method (Shrode. this pertains to the design of learning systems. The second dimension. Applied to learning systems. . 1974).

Evaluation plan 6. Learning task description and analysis 7.Work assignments A learning system plan consists of the following parts: . 1. Audience capabilities and limitations 3. Resource analysis 4. Instructional goals and objectives 5. Timetable 10. Learning strategy/ies including media materials 8. Rationale 2. Budget 9.

  2.Evaluation in a learning system involves the following steps: 1) Preparation of resources both human and nonhuman 2) Carrying out activities as scheduled 3) Carrying out the evaluation plan 4) Analysis of evaluation findings and reporting these to the learning system staff and others concerned 5) Making necessary adjustments as the learning system takes place or redesigning it afterwards .Carrying out and. 3.

Specifically. problems or interests of potential learners. . RATIONALE  Before even deciding to design a learning system. s/he must find out the needs. the educational communicator must first determine if and why one is needed.


What communication skills do the intended learners possess? Can they read. cultural norms and values that may affect how they perform it? 2. write and perform simple mathematical equations? Can they understand certain visual symbols? What non-verbal symbols are meaningful to them? 4. How familiar are the intended learners with the learning tasks? How much previous experience do they have with respect to the learning tasks? What are their attitudes. Do the learners‟ environment or resources performing the learning tasks hard or easy? make 3. How many are the learners? How similar or varied are their capabilities and limitations? .1.


. Human Resources to be considered: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Nature of work and staff qualifications needed Availability Skills and knowhow Credibility of resource persons or facilitators Similarities or differences between the resource persons or facilitators and the learners.

5. 3. What resources are needed? Which among these are available? Which need to be acquired? Which resources cannot be acquired? What adjustments are called for the lieu of limited resources? . 2. Guide questions in analyzing the resources for a Learning System: 1. 4.

not from a communicator‟s viewpoint ◦ thus. an instructional goal must tell what a learner should be able to do at the end of a learning system. and not what a communicator is going to do learning system. Goal ◦ The goal/s and objective/s of a learning system are the proposed answer/s to learning needs. or interests earlier identified. It should be attainable and realistic ◦ Is a general statement about the intended outcome of the ◦ must be considered from the point of view of a learner. . problems.

” “to train.” “to persuade” because these are phrases indicating what a communicators intends to do Its purpose is to be able to arrive at behavioural objectives that are specific and measurable  The rural housewife must (be able to) appreciate the value of boiling water for drinking.  .” or so on and not “to inform.” “to disseminate information. A goal should state if the learner should be able “to understand.” “to appreciate.” “to grasp.” “to master.” “to know.

Observable. ◦ To use action words that are easy to observe is the practical guideline in coming up with the behavioral objective . Achievable. and Simply stated.◦ The qualities of the behavioral instructional objectives are the following:      Time-bound. Measurable.

Words used in learning goals Understand Know Familiarize Learn Grasp Realize Appreciate Be convinced Master Words used in instructional objectives Discuss Describe Explain Cite Identify List Enumerate Perform Demonstrate Show Classify Summarize Tell Write Operate Give examples Design Compare Follow Practice Use .

.◦ 3 Major Instructional Objectives according to Mager  Performance  Conditions  Criterion ◦ Setting instructional objectives that posses the TOMAS qualities is important if the learning systems designer is to come up with a streamlined. ◦ Being definite and specific in objective writing also helps learning systems designers to assess how realistic and achievable their intended outcomes are. focused learning system.

TOMAS objectives give learning system designers a clear idea about how much or how little their efforts and their learning program or material will really contribute to higher systems goals. writing not only TOMAS objectives but also those complete with a performance. a condition.◦ Further. ◦ Finally. and a criterion makes a assessment of the success or failure of a learning system easier. .

◦ Evaluation is defined as a continuous process of collecting and interpreting information in order to assess decisions made in planning and carrying out a learning system.  It makes learning system managers and participants conscious of improving their performance. as it is carried out.  It points out why a learning system succeeds or fails. to reduce a learning problem or reach the objectives. ◦ Importance of Evaluation  It determines if the learning system plan is on the right course. . and after it is carried out. while.  It tells how to improve a learning system before.

Appropriateness – whether or not the learning system or its components answer the real and felt needs of intended participants. at their level of readiness 2. Efficiency – whether or not the combination of resources used in planning and carrying out the learning system or its components requires the least or realistic costs to achieve objectives 4. Cost – effectiveness – whether the outcomes of the learning system or its components sufficiently or more than compensate for the cost of the resources used     5. Effectiveness – whether or not the learning system or its components meet its objective 3. 1. Adequacy – whether or not the components of the learning system are sufficient to attain its objectives .

Side – effects – whether the learning system or any of its components has good. adequacy and side effects 8. cost – effectiveness. bad. anticipated and unanticipated effects that are unintentional 7. effectiveness. Achievement of individual participants – the extent to which individual participants are able to perform the instructional objectives   . efficiency. Comparison with other related learning systems – how two or more related learning system compare in terms of appropriateness. 6.

communication channels and message treatments are appropriate . Knowledge. 9. attitudes and /or skills of participants before the learning system takes place  IMPORTANCE:  Help determine if the learning system is appropriate to learners‟ needs and readiness or if it needs changes  Tell if participants are adequately prepared to take part in and gain from the learning system  Provide a baseline for evaluating if participants gain from completing the learning system  Help determine which learning system strategies. experience. Information needed ◦ Information needed in evaluating learning systems and their importance ◦ 1.

learning strategies.1. Knowledge attitudes and/or skills participants as the learning system progresses  IMPORTANCE:  Tell if the participants are learning or achieving specific instructional objectives according to plans  Provide feedback to participants regarding their progress  Help determine if specific project components. How the learning system progresses? ◦ 2. and communication channels are effective  Tell if the learning system components that are still to be carried out need revision of . 2.

specific messages need to be revised . Participants‟ suggestions/ opinions and reactions about the learning strategies.2. communication channels.  IMPORTANCE:  Help determine appropriateness. communication channels. and their treatments. adequacy.◦ 2. communication channels. and their treatments  Tell if learning strategies. specific messages. specific messages. side effects and efficiency/ cost-effectiveness of learning strategies.

Resources used in planning and carrying out the learning system  4-5 IMPORTANCE:  Help determine if the learning system is efficient or cost-effective . Proportion of participants achieving the objectives in learning system ◦ 5.◦ 3. Knowledge attitude and/ or skills of participants after completing the learning system  IMPORTANCE:  Determine if the learning system meets its objectives ◦ 4.

efficiency/ costeffectiveness. adequacy. Participants‟ perceptions/ opinions about and reactions to the learning system  IMPORTANCE:  Help determine appropriateness. whether intended or unintended .◦ 6. Behavior of participants in their usual surroundings after some time has lapsed from the time the learning system is completed  IMPORTANCE:  Help determine impacts of the learning system. and side effects of the learning system ◦ 7.

attitudes and/ skills of intended learners. practical or simulated. such as during coffee or meal breaks and socials.  Surveys. oral.may be carried out by using self-administered questionairs or interview schedules administered by evaluator. .may be written.  Informal discussion. these are used to determine the knowledge.evaluators may find out participants‟ opinions and perceptions of a learning system when they meet informally. 10. Information gathering ◦ Ways of information gathering:  Tests or exercises.

communicators.  Observation. and evaluators may be arranged to evaluate the learning system.as the learning system progresses. a meeting among them.an evaluator may examine existing records about expenditures. video camera and the tape recorder may also be used as observation tools. . The evaluator may prepare guide question to facilitate the discussion.if the learning system participants are in a group.  Documents Analysis. participants and other relevant information. Media equipment such as the camera. an evaluator may observe and record how participants behave. Advantage of this method is that the learning system staff members can immediately clarify questions or act on suggestions and complaints. Group discussion.

The objectives do not sufficiently help reduce a learning problem or need. The staff. The learners do not have enough preparation. The subject matters is not well organized. 6. cultural. Negative side effects cancel out accomplishments due to designers lack of familiarity with participants‟ social. equipment. 3. 2. The learning strategies and communication channels are not effective and appropriate. and facilities are poorly coordinated. materials. the use of time. 4. economic or political environments . 5. money.1.

 TASK DESCRIPTION  Once learning system designers have clear specific instructional objectives that they have crosschecked through an evaluation plan. affective and action tasks. Action tasks are easy to observe. Based on the three behavioural domains three types of learning tasks may be identified: cognitive. they need to draw up the tasks to be learned. communicators prepare their message by first mastering it. The tasks are the specific actions that lead to the ultimate actions desired as described by the instructional objectives. .  In communications. Cognitive and affective tasks are essentially „in the head‟ tasks and need be translated into action.

cognitive and affective tasks (or messages) are described through a content outline or a narrative description.  If the terminal objective of a learning system is “to enable rural women to prepare herbal medicines for simple ailment‟‟. they may translate these into ENABLING OBJECTIVES. An enabling objective is just another behavioural instructional objective that pertains to a specific learning task or action that would lead to the attainment of the instructional objectives of the learning system. the enabling objectives may consist of the following: .  Once learning system designers have described the learning tasks. As in any communication.

2. Describe the procedure in preparing a herbal cure for each common ailment. List some herbal medicines commonly found in their locality. .1. Match the appropriate herbal medicines with the common illnesses for which they may be used as cures. 3.


learning strategy is placed under the learners‟ control  PRESENTATION ◦ One-way flow of information from a teacher or authority to learners ◦ Primarily useful in increasing the learner‟s knowledge and understanding (cognitive domain) ◦ Achieved when the learners attend to and are able to process the stimuli presented to them . Types: ◦ Expository Approach . the information is presented for the learners to process ◦ Inquiry Approach .non-participative end of teaching.

 DISCUSSION ◦ Stimulation of thoughts and free-flowing exchange of ideas among learners in a group ◦ Used to enable learners to arrive at their own conclusions or solutions to problems ◦ Also enables learners to internalize principles and gain insights (cognitive) ◦ Can raise interest in certain issues and move the learners to act with regard to an issue or problem (affective) .

conclusions. and ideas to other members in their group or even to other groups ◦ Useful in enabling learners to internalize what they have to share (cognitive and affective) and in helping others gain further insights. SHARING ◦ Learners present their own experiences. too. in receiving others‟ reactions to their own ideas and experiences (cognitive) .

Timetable. and Work Assignments ◦ make up the work plan preparatory to carrying out a learning system  . DOING ◦ A chance to try or practice a task ◦ Because of high level of doing or participation.  FEEDBACK ◦ Places emphasis on informing individual learners of their progress in reaching the terminal objectives of a learning system ◦ Important in all domains  Budget. learners can acquire not only better understanding (cognitive) and new skills (psychomotor) but also new attitudes (affective) through the doing strategy.

and equipment (and building) outlay . BUDGET ◦ The learning system plan in monetary terms ◦ Consists of personal services. maintenance and other operating expenses.

The regular staff positions needed to make the necessary preparations.◦ Personal Services. and other miscellaneous expenses. salaries and personal fees are indicated. While the budget shows how the funds are to be allocated in a learning system. The expenses to be incurred in purchasing new equipment an furniture and in constructing a new building or renovating a room. supplies and materials. and evaluate the learning system. ◦ Equipment (and building) outlay. ◦ Maintenance and other operating expenses. . carry out. Here. the timetable shows how time is to be allocated. Includes allotments for travel.

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