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Network Layers

Standards
TCP/IP Protocol Suite The Open System Interconnected Model (OSI)

TCP/IP Protocol Suite


TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1. Link Layer 2. Internet Layer 3. Transport Layer 4. Application Layer

OSI Layers
Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Datalink Layer Physical Layer

Why a Layered Network Model?


Reduces complexity (one big problem to seven smaller ones) Standardizes interfaces
It allows the standardization of interfaces among devices

Facilitates modular engineering


It also facilitates modular engineering so engineers can work on one layer of the network model without being concerned with what happens at another layer.

Assures interoperable technology Accelerates evolution Simplifies teaching and learning

OSI Layers
7. 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1.

(* in-Sequence)

Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data-Link Layer Physical Layer

Devices Function at Layers


7
6

Application
Presentation Session

NIC Card

4
3 2 1

Transport
Network Data Link Physical
Hub

Host Layers
7
6 5

Application
Presentation Session

4
3 2 1

Transport
Network Data Link Physical

Host /Software layers:


Provide accurate data delivery between computers

Media Layers
7 6 5 Application Presentation Session

4
3 2 1

Transport
Network Data Link Physical

}
}
Media /Hardware layers:
Control physical delivery of messages over the network

1. Physical Layer
Transmits the digital bits stream over the transmission medium. Defines the electrical and mechanical specifications of the connection. i.e; cable and connectors Electrical: Bit stream Mechanical: Switching (NIC), HW Interfacing, Connectors, cables to get connected to other part of the network.

1. Physical Layer

1. Physical Layer Functions I


Physical Characteristics of Interface and Media Representation of Bits/ Encoding Data Rate / Transmission Rate Synchronization of Bits
successful message

1. Physical Layer Functions II


Line Configuration
Media Characteristics, OF (SM,MM Specs) Coaxial (Thinnet, Thicknet - Specs) Copper (TP, UTP, STP, etc Specs)

Physical Topology
Ring, Star, Mesh, Bus etc.

Transmission Mode
STM, ATM

2. Data Link Layer


Responsible for Node-To-Node Delivery
Switch to switch Router to router

This layer do not interact with the Data terminating nodes. (DTE)

Makes Physical Layer error free to the upper layers

2. Data Link Layer

2. Data Link Layer Functions

Framing
Converts bits into frames

MAC Address
24 bits 24 bits

Physical Addressing
MAC Address

Vendor Code

Serial Number

0000.0c12. 3456
ROM RAM
MAC address is burned into ROM on a network interface card
CSE: Networking FundamentalsOSI Model

Flow Control
Data flow

Error Control

www.cisco.com

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

2-25

With the help of Frame check sequence Two approaches to handle bit errors.
Error Correcting Codes Error Detecting Codes plus re-transmission

Access Control

Media Access Control Techniques


Identify two media access control methods for shared media and the basic characteristics of each I. Controlled Access II. Contention Based Access

I-Controlled Access

II- Contention Based Access

Data Link Layer Example

Trailer: Indicates the frame check sequence number. It is used for error control in a frames.

3-Network Layer
Responsible for Source-to-Destination delivery
It provides connectivity and path selection between two systems

Network Layer ensures that each packet gets from its point of origin to its final destination
Capable of Routing, i.e. addressing and best path selection.

3.Network Layer

3. Network Layer Functions


Logical Addressing
IP Addresses (Classful Classless)
IPv4, IPv6 IPv4: IP Classes (A,B,C,D,E)

Routing
Conventional Non-Conventional

3. Network Layer Functions


Routing
Conventional: Key routing techniques are
Fixed Flooding Random Adaptive

Non-Conventional
Interior Link State Routing (OSPF, IS-IS) Path Vector or Distance Vector (RIP, IGRP, EIGRP) Exterior (BGP)

4. Transport Layer
The Transport layer is primarily concerned with end-to-end connection reliability. Eg; Responsible for Source-to-Destination delivery of Entire Message Transport Layer ensures that whole message arrives at the destination intact
It is concerned with issues such as data transport information flow and fault detection and the recovery.

4. Transport Layer

4. Transport Layer Functions


Service Point Addressing Segmentation and Reassembly Connection Control Flow Control Error Control

5. Session Layer
The session layer is concerned with inter-host communication.
Session layer is the Network Dialog Controller

It establishes, manages and terminates sessions between applications.


Establishes, Maintains, and Synchronizes the interaction between communicating systems

5. Session Layer Functions


Dialog Control Synchronization

5. Session Layer

6. Presentation Layer
Presentation layer is concerned with
Syntax & Semantics of information exchange between two systems

It is responsible for the overall representation of the data from the application layer to the receiving system. It insures that the data is readable by the receiving system.

6. Presentation Layer

6. Presentation Layer Functions


Translation Encryption

Compression

7. Application Layer
Enables the users, either human or software to access the network It provides user interface and support for the services such as Electronic mail Remote File Access & Transfer Shared Database Management

7. Application Layer

7. Application Layer Functions


Network Virtual Terminal File Transfer, Access & Management (FTAM) Mail Services Directory Services

Summary of Layer Functions

Layer Functions
7 Application

Provides network services to application processes (such as electronic mail, file transfer, and terminal emulation)

Layer Functions
7 6 Application Network services to applications Data representation Ensures data is readable by receiving system Format of data Data structures Negotiates data transfer syntax for application layer

Presentation

Layer Functions
7 6 5 Application Network services to applications Data representation Inter-host communication Establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between applications

Presentation
Session

Layer Functions
7 6 5 Application Network services to applications Data representation Inter-host communication End-to-end connection reliability

Presentation
Session

Transport

Concerned with data transport issues between hosts Data transport reliability Establishes, maintains, and terminates virtual circuits Fault detection and recovery Information flow control

Layer Functions
7 6 5 Application Network services to applications Data representation Inter-host communication End-to-end connection reliability Addresses and best path

Presentation
Session

4
3

Transport
Network

Provides connectivity and path selection between two end systems Domain of routing

Layer Functions
7 6 5 4 Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Network services to applications Data representation

Inter-host communication End-to-end connection reliability


Addresses and best path Access to media
Provides reliable transfer of data across media Physical addressing, network topology, error notification, flow control

3
2

Layer Functions
7

Application
Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical

Network services to applications

6
5 4 3 2 1

Data representation
Inter-host communication End-to-end connection reliability

Addresses and best path


Access to media Binary transmission Wires, connectors, voltages, data rates

Peer-to-Peer Communications
Host A 7 6 5 Application Presentation Session Host B

Application
Presentation Session Segments Packets Frames Bits

4
3 2

Transport
Network Data Link

Transport
Network Data Link

Physical

Physical

Data Encapsulation
Host A
Application Presentation Host B

Session
Transport Network Data Link Physical

} {
Data

Application Presentation

Session
Transport Network Data Link Physical

Data Encapsulation
Host A
Application Presentation Host B

Session
Transport Network Data Link Physical

} {
Data Network Header Data

Application Presentation

Session
Transport Network Data Link Physical

Data Encapsulation
Host A
Application Presentation Host B

Session
Transport Network Data Link Physical

} {
Data Network Header Frame Header Network Header Data Data Frame Trailer

Application Presentation

Session
Transport Network Data Link Physical

Recap of the OSI Model

TCP/IP Protocol Suite


Transmission Control Protocol / Internetworking Protocol Developed Prior to OSI Model Widely used in the Internet Today

Layers in TCP/IP Protocol Suite


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Application Layer 1. Link Layer 2. Internet Layer 3. Transport Layer 4. Application Layer

TCP/IP Protocol Suite


TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1. Link Layer
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)

2. Internet Layer
Internet Protocol (IP) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP) Security Level Protocols
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) Protocol Identifier Modes of Operation

TCP/IP Protocol Suite


3. Transport Layer Protocol

(continue..)

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) User datagram Protocols (UDP) Security Level Protocols
Secure sockets layer (SSL) Transport Layer Security (TLS)

4. Application Layer Protocol


Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Security Level Protocols
Telnet

TCP/IP Protocol Suite

Suggested Reading
Data Communications and Networking 2nd Edition by Behrouz A. Forouzan Section.3