The study of sound patterns of language

 Phoneti

cs provides the means to describe the sounds. ogy tells us that the sounds function as phonemes, patterning & acting to contrast words

 Phonol


have words. Words are made up of the string of speech sounds. Sounds tend to vary with their context. They occur in different environment. The distribution of the sounds follows complex, rule-governed patterns.
 The

basic sounds serve as the building blocks for distinguishing words from each other.

These basic sounds are phonemes

Phoneme : the smallest unit of language which does not have a meaning, but it can distinguish meanings.
 the

smallest segment of sound which can distinguish two words  the distinctive (contrastive) unit of sound which can be used to change meaning fine – vine ( /f/ – /v/ ) chunk – junk / tʃ or č / – / dӡ or ĵ/ ( different forms and meanings ) English: 44 phonemes (24 consonants, 12 vowels, 8 diphthongs)


are called to be distinctive sounds : they cause a difference in the meaning of words. Phonemes are meaningless. Single sounds are meaningful only if they are at least a morpheme (a smallest meaningful unit) such as [ә] and [ɔ:] in English. Indonesian ? Javanese ?

Phoneme combination (sequence of phonemes)  After a consonant like /b/,/g/,/k/,or /p/ another stop consonant is not permitted.
 know,

knot, knight ?  pneumonia ?  glimp ?
 If

a word begins with /l/, /r/, /tʃ/, /dӡ/, the next segment must be a vowel.

 Word

may begin with three consonant-type phonemes  Words must obey three strict rules: 1. if the first phoneme is /s/ 2. the second phoneme must be /p/, or /t/, or /k/ 3. the third phoneme must be /l/, or /r/, or /w/, or /j/

/spriŋ/  String /striŋ/  Splendid /splendid/  Spume /spju:m/, Spurious /spjuәriәs/  Square /skweә/  Skew /skju:/ , skewer /skju:ә/  (Br) Student /stju:dnt/
 Spring  The

expression /sbrint/ doesn’t meet the strict rules above. That’s why it is impossible in English.

Phonemic principles
Criteria for contrast:  minimal pair: a pair of words that are distinguished by just one segment. Two different forms are identical in every way except for one segment sound that occurs in the same place in the string. fine – vine /f/ – /v/ ch unk – junk / tʃ or č / – / dӡ / Substituting /v/ for /f/ changes the form (word) & meaning


set : a set of words that are distinguished by just one segment.
distinguishing the initial consonant:

pan → ban, man, ran, etc.

changing the vowel:

man → mean, moan, mine, moon

the final consonant:

hat, pat, bat, mat, fat, vat, that, sat, rat, chat, cat b m f v th s r ch c
 /h/

contrasts with a number of English consonant phonemes word-initially; but there is no minimal pair for /ŋ/.  In word-final position, we find contrasts for /ŋ/, as in rang – ran, ram, rat, rag, etc. but there is no equivalent minimal pair for /h/ /h/ and /ŋ/ are in complementary distribution.

There are variations in the form of phonemes, known as allophone.

Allophones: variants of phoneme which occur in certain designable / in a different and predictable set of environment.
The variations can be conditioned by the sounds round it, or by its position in the word.

Phoneme /p/  → [ ph ] aspirated
In the beginning of a word or initial syllable stress, it is pronounced with a puff of breath (aspirated) as in pot, power, paper , com’pare com’ → [ p ] unaspirated After a phoneme /s/ , it is unaspirated as in spot, spray, spoil → [ p- ] unreleased At the end of a word, it is unreleased as in cop, cap, lip


Phoneme / t /
    

top stop spot button letter

[ th ] - aspirated [ t ] - unaspirated [ t- ] unreleased [ ʔ ] - glottal stop [ leDә r ] flap

allophone Phoneme / l /  clear [ l ]

‘light’; occurs before vowels  dark (unclear) [ ł ] ‘kill’; before a consonant or a pause
 Voiceless

(fricative) [ ļ ] clean’, ‘play’; occurs initially in a stressed syllable after /p/ or /k/
Lesley told Paul to clean the children’s playroom.





allophones have systematic distribution, they are called to be in complementary distribution. complementary distribution: one set of environment complements the other

complementary distribution

sounds X and Y are said in complementary distribution if Y never occurs in any of the phonetic environment in which X occurs.