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Introduction: Population and Sample Benefits And Limitation Sample Process Chart Types Of Sample Process Probablity Types Non-Probablity types

Population – group of things (people) having one or more common characteristics Sample – representative subgroup of the larger population ◦ Used to estimate something about a population (generalize) ◦ Must be similar to population on characteristic being investigated A sample is a “part of a whole to show what the rest is like”. Sampling helps to determine the corresponding value of the population and plays a vital role in marketing research

Probability Sampling Simple random sampling Stratified random sampling Systematic sampling Cluster (area) sampling Multistage sampling

Non-Probability Sampling Deliberate (quota) sampling Convenience sampling Purposive sampling .

sampling is the way to test. Save time: Less time needed to study the sample than the population . the results are expected to be accurate. Accuracy: Since sampling is done with care and studies are conducted by skilled and qualified interviewers. since tests destroy the element itself .Samples offer many benefits: Save costs: Less expensive to study the sample than the population. Destructive nature of elements: For some elements.

Minority and smallness in number of sub-groups often render study to be suspected. Accuracy level may be affected when data is subjected to weighing.Limitations of Sampling Demands more rigid control in undertaking sample operation. Sample results are good approximations at best .

Defining the population Developing a sampling Frame Specifying Sample Method Determining Sample Size SELECTING THE SAMPLE .

Universe or population is the whole mass under study. 1995) . How to define a universe: ◦ What constitutes the units of analysis (HDB apartments)? ◦ What are the sampling units (HDB apartments occupied in the last three months)? ◦ What is the specific designation of the units to be covered (HDB in town area)? ◦ What time period does the data refer to (December 31.

A sample frame which does not fully represent an intended population will result in frame error and affect the degree of reliability of sample result .) from which the samples are drawn. A sample frame is the list of all elements in the population (such as telephone directories. electoral registers. club membership etc.

. Average of sample sizes of similar other studies. Sample size may be determined by using: ◦ Subjective methods (less sophisticated methods) The rule of thumb approach: eg. ◦ Statistical formulae (more sophisticated methods) Confidence interval approach. Cost basis approach: The number that can be studied with the available funds. 5% of population Conventional approach: eg.

promotion) Product tests Advertising (TV.g. Radio.g..market segmentation) Problem-solving (e.Sample sizes used in different marketing research studies TYPE OF STUDY Identifying a problem (e. or print Media per commercial or ad tested) Test marketing Test market audits Focus groups MINIMUM SIZE 500 200 200 150 200 10 stores/outlets 2 groups TYPICAL RANGE 1000-2500 300-500 300-500 200-300 300-500 10-20 stores/outlets 4-12 groups .

◦ Amount of variability in the population (homogeneity). researchers use the confidence interval approach based on the following factors: ◦ Desired level of data precision or accuracy. To determine sample sizes using statistical formulae. ◦ Level of confidence required in the estimates of population values. manpower and time may prompt the researcher to modify the computed sample size. Availability of resources such as money. .

◦ Results may be generalized. ◦ Scientific. Probability Sampling ◦ Every element in the target population or universe [sampling frame] has equal probability of being chosen in the sample for the survey being conducted. . ◦ Results may not be generalized. ◦ Operationally convenient and simple in theory. Non-Probability Sampling ◦ Every element in the universe [sampling frame] does not have equal probability of being chosen in the sample. operationally convenient and simple in theory.

No random number table is necessary ◦ Cluster sampling Use of random number table may be necessary . Appropriate for heterogeneous population ◦ Stratified sampling Use of random number table may be necessary ◦ Systematic sampling Requires the sample frame only. Probability sampling:Four types of probability sampling Appropriate for homogeneous population ◦ Simple random sampling Requires the use of a random number table.

Four types of non-probability sampling techniques ◦ Very simple types. based on subjective criteria ◦ More systematic and formal ◦ Special type Convenient sampling Judgmental sampling Quota sampling Snowball Sampling .

Equal probability Techniques ◦ Fishbowl (with replacement & w/o replacement) ◦ Table of random numbers Advantage ◦ Most representative group Disadvantage ◦ Difficult to identify every member of a population .

To make them easy to read there is typically a space between every 4th digit and between every 10th row. . Here is an extract from a table of random sampling numbers: 3680 2231 8846 5418 0498 5245 7071 2597 If we were doing market research and wanted to sample two houses from a street containing houses numbered 1 to 48 we would read off the digits in pairs 36 80 22 31 88 46 54 18 04 98 52 45 70 71 25 97 and take the first two pairs that were less than 48. When reading from random number tables you can begin anywhere (choose a number at random) but having once started you should continue to read across the line or down a column and NOT jump about. which gives house numbers 36 and 22. Random number tables consist of a randomly generated series of digits (0-9).

8Jo nes.9Lillywhite By numbering them from 0 to 9 you need only use single digits from the random number table.3Durran. If we wanted to sample two houses from a much longer road with 140 houses in it we would need to read the digits off in groups of three: 368 022 318 846 541 804 985 245 707 1 25 97 and the numbers underlined would be the ones to visit: 22 and 125.2Croft. which is convenient (except where there is no number 13). For a group of 10 people we could number them as: 0Appleyard.4Entwhistle.6Gray.5Francis. one has first to give each member of the population a number.1Banyard.7Hibbert. 36802231884654180498524570712597 . Houses in a road usually have numbers attached. In many cases. however.

Also called random sampling Simplest method of probability sampling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 37 75 10 49 98 66 03 86 34 80 98 44 22 22 45 83 53 86 23 51 2 50 91 56 41 52 82 98 11 57 96 27 10 27 16 35 34 47 01 36 08 3 99 14 23 50 21 01 03 25 79 07 80 54 55 41 12 15 15 03 68 56 4 70 72 01 00 33 25 19 16 23 58 03 78 47 43 77 88 15 02 55 67 5 18 46 06 49 47 32 58 08 75 29 63 66 89 09 22 35 97 74 30 80 6 65 76 34 11 33 60 95 03 53 72 06 78 28 14 51 78 76 45 26 45 7 83 76 95 25 70 60 13 32 52 11 87 38 49 01 82 84 99 02 64 00 8 58 90 07 84 20 98 57 93 36 65 10 71 83 93 42 46 34 61 44 01 9 54 74 67 11 15 78 21 96 43 14 11 22 74 17 02 54 51 78 76 76 10 56 81 92 73 40 07 20 05 26 63 57 86 48 51 59 15 46 09 75 64 Need to use Random Number Table 11 34 99 06 21 22 38 22 32 85 26 37 00 62 27 74 46 02 61 59 81 12 02 26 92 27 95 87 59 38 18 30 95 38 36 78 23 20 19 65 48 50 13 43 04 25 36 00 45 73 80 02 61 31 10 06 72 39 02 00 47 06 98 14 92 56 51 22 11 06 86 88 77 86 59 57 66 13 82 33 97 21 31 61 15 67 42 43 26 20 60 84 18 68 48 85 00 00 48 35 48 57 63 38 84 .

Systematic Sampling •Technique •Use “system” to select sample (e. saves time and energy •Disadvantage •Not entirely bias free. efficient. every 10th name in phone book) •Advantage •Quick..g. every 5th item in alphabetized list. each item does not have equal chance to be selected •System for selecting subjects may introduce systematic error •Cannot generalize beyond pop actually sampled .

In systematic sampling only one random number is needed throughout the entire sampling process.000 listings as the sampling frame.000/1000]. Very similar to simple random sampling with one exception. [ii] a skip interval calculated as follows: Skip interval = population list size Sample size Names are selected using the skip interval. and is needed. and select his sample. The researcher can select every 215th name of the entire directory [sampling frame]. To use systematic sampling. If a researcher were to select a sample of 1000 people using the local telephone directory containing 215. skip interval is [215. or 215. . a researcher needs: [i] a sampling frame of the population.

03) Select: Random number for name position in that column (#38. . and the last name is now the name just prior to the initially selected one. A. determine a starting position for sampling the list. Step 2: Compute the skip interval by dividing the number of entries in the directory by the desired sample size. the first name on the list is now the initial name you selected. So skip interval = every 100th name Step 3: Using random number(s). that is. just continue on through the beginning (As).. Example: Select: Random number for page number. Step 5: Consider the list as “circular”.000 names in the phone book. Example: A. Mahadeva (Skip 100 names). from which to sample. Example: When you come to the end of the phone book names (Zs).Example: How to Take a Systematic Sample Step 1: Select a listing of the population. new name chosen is A Rahman b Ahmad. Remember that the list will have an acceptable level of sample frame error. desired a sample size of 2500. (col. say the City Telephone Directory. (page 01) Select: Random number of column on that page. Example: 250.Mahadeva) Step 4: Apply the skip interval to determine which names on the list will be in the sample. say.

Stratified Sampling •Technique •Divide population into various strata •Randomly sample within each strata •Sample from each strata should be proportional •Advantage •Better in achieving representativeness on control variable •Disadvantage •Difficult to pick appropriate strata •Difficult to ID every member in population .

such that the ratio of sample elements from each stratum to the sample size equals that of the population elements within each stratum to the total number of population elements.Form the final sample by consolidating all sample elements chosen in step 2. mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subgroups or strata using some stratification variable.Divide the population into homogeneous. Step 2. May yield smaller standard errors of estimators than does the simple random sampling. Disproportionate: the sample is disproportionate when the above mentioned ratio is unequal. Step 3. Thus precision can be gained with smaller sample sizes. .Stratified sampling A three-stage process: Stratified samples can be: Step 1. Proportionate: involving the selection of sample elements from each stratum.Select an independent simple random sample from each stratum.

Part time:63 .Full time:09 •Female.Part time:18 •Female.Example: In general the size of the sample in each stratum is taken in proportion to the size of the stratum. This is called proportional allocation. Suppose that in a company there are the following staff: •Male Full time:90 •Male .

full time = (9 / 180 ) x 100 = 0. stratified according to the above categories. 5% should be female. % male. full time = ( 90 / 180 ) x 100 = 0. The first step is to find the total number of staff (180) and calculate the percentage in each group. part time = (63/180)x100 = 0. 35% of 40 is 14. . part time = ( 18 / 180 ) x100 = 0. 35% should be female.1 x 100 = 10 % female.And we are asked to take a sample of 40 staff. 10% of 40 is 4. 50% should be male.35 x 100 = 35 This tells us that of our sample of 40. 5% of 40 is 2. full time. part time. 50% of 40 is 20. part time.05 x 100 = 5 % female. 10% should be male.5 x 100 = 50 % male. full time.

less costly Conclusions should be stated in terms of cluster (sample unit – school) Sample size is # of clusters .Cluster (Area) Sampling •Randomly select groups (cluster) – all members of groups are subjects •Appropriate when •you can’t obtain a list of the members of the population •have little knowledge of pop characteristics •Pop is scattered over large geographic area •Advantage More practical.

Select an independent simple random sample of clusters. and it retains the characteristics of probability sampling. Step 2. where pieces of geographical areas are selected. Such a procedure is economic.Is a type of sampling in which clusters or groups of elements are sampled at the same time. . One special type of cluster sampling is called area sampling.Defined population is divided into number of mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subgroups or clusters. A two-step-process: Step 1.

Cluster sampling can be done in just one step or multiple steps. In one step cluster sampling after selecting few clusters. in one step method all patients form each hospital should be included while in multistage cluster sampling we first select some hospitals then a number of patients within each hospital (clusterwill be selected. Tehran has around 120 hospitals. we include whole selected cluster’s unit in to our sample while in multi stage cluster sampling we will choose randomly just some units within clusters. Example: In assessing the satisfaction of HIV positive patients from hospital based health care services in city of Kerman you can assume each hospital in the city and allocate a random sample size from each hospital to reach your desired sample size. .Clusters are parts of the population with almost same elements or units of the population but in smaller scale.

More prone to sampling error. each containing a few elements. 4. Less sampling error. Between heterogeneity exists between strata. A cluster is selected each time. However. Within each stratum. 3. each containing a large number of elements. 4. Within each cluster. 2. clusters. 5. 5. The target population is subdivided into a large number of sub-population or clusters. 3. A sample element is selected each time.Stratified Sampling vs Cluster Sampling Stratified Sampling 1. the elements homogeneous. The target population is sub-divided into a few subgroups or strata. there is a high degree of homogeneity. Objective is to increase precision. high degree of are heterogeneous. . Cluster Sampling 1. Objective is to increase sampling efficiency by decreasing cost. the elements are 2.

Step 3: Using random numbers. . 103). you select 4 blocks randomly. housing blocks or townships. Step 2: Decide on the use of one-step or two-step cluster sampling. choose ten housing blocks within 2 kilometers of the proposed site [say. say numbers #102. Here. Model Town ] for your new retail outlet. select the households in each of the chosen housing block to be included in the sample. such as districts. and #108. How to Take an Area Sample Using Subdivisions Your company wants to conduct a survey on the expected patronage of its new outlet in a new housing estate. For example. assign each a number. Assume that you decide to use a two-stage cluster sampling. Area sampling could be one-stage. select the housing blocks to be sampled. Each subdivision cluster should be highly similar to all others. Identify a random starting point (say. Step 4: Using some probability method of sample selection. #104. two-stage. instruct field workers to drop off the survey at every fifth house (systematic sampling). and identify its subdivisions. or multi-stage. The sample may be drawn in the manner outlined below. ___________________________________________________________________________________ Step 1: Determine the geographic area to be surveyed. apartment no. #106.AREA SAMPLING A common form of cluster sampling where clusters consist of geographic areas. The company wants to use area sampling to select the sample households to be interviewed.

Convenience sampling ◦ Drawn at the convenience of the researcher. Snowball sampling ◦ Used in studies involving respondents who are rare to find. Common in exploratory research. gut-feelings or experience of the researcher. If inference drawing is not necessary. . Common in commercial marketing research projects. Does not lead to any conclusion. Quota sampling ◦ An extension of judgmental sampling. Each of these respondents are contacted to provide names of other probable respondents. these samples are quite useful. the researcher compiles a short list of sample units from various sources. It is something like a two-stage judgmental sampling. To start with. Judgmental sampling ◦ Sampling based on some judgment. Quite difficult to draw.

nonrandom Intact classes. volunteers. a typical group. “Take them where you find them” . survey respondents (low return). a typical person Disadvantage: Selection bias Use post hoc analysis to show groups were equal at the start .

the researcher inadvertently excludes a great proportion of the population. a class or an institution that is easily accessible to the researcher. A more concrete example is choosing five people from a class or choosing the first five names from the list of patients. A convenience sample is either a collection of subjects that are accessible or a self selection of individuals willing to participate which is exemplified by your volunteers. In these examples. Another example is using subjects that are selected from a clinic. One of the most common examples of convenience sampling is using student volunteers as subjects for the research. .

Purposive sampling is used in cases where the specialty of an authority can select a more representative sample that can bring more accurate results than by using other probability sampling techniques. The process involves nothing but purposely handpicking individuals from the population based on the authority’s or the researcher’s knowledge and judgment. . This type of sampling technique is also known as purposive sampling and authoritative sampling.

Judgmental sampling design is usually used when a limited number of individuals possess the trait of interest. the only people who can give the researcher first hand advise are the individuals who graduated summa cum laude. With this very specific and very limited pool of individuals that can be considered as a subject. . In a study wherein a researcher wants to know what it takes to graduate summa cum laude in college. the researcher must use judgmental sampling.

Similar to stratified random sampling Technique Disadvantage ◦ Quotas set using some characteristic of the population thought to be relevant ◦ Subjects selected non-randomly to meet quotas (usu. convenience sampling) ◦ selection bias ◦ Cannot set quotas for all characteristics important to study .

. The first step in non-probability quota sampling is to divide the population into exclusive subgroups. this same proportion will be applied in the sampling process. the researcher selects subjects from the various subgroups while taking into consideration the proportions noted in the previous step. The final step ensures that the sample is representative of the entire population. Then. It also allows the researcher to study traits and characteristics that are noted for each subgroup. the researcher must identify the proportions of these subgroups in the population. Finally.

..3% 33.. 76........ .......... Christianity ...... 6....4% = 402 3000 x 52... Hinduism ........ Religion: .......7% 49...... In order to calculate the desired number of sample elements possessing the various attributes of the specified control characteristics. Female .....3% = 1569 3000 x 34. Distribution 50........... the three control characteristics are considered independently of one another.... 20-29 years ..........6% Hinduism 3000 x 6.. Here.....8% Islam 3000 x 14... Population Male..............................7% = 1521 3000 x 49. ................3% = 1029 .2% Others 3000 x 2..8% = 444 .. Islam ........ 40 years & over .3% = 1479 3000 x 13..........3% Male Female 20-29 years 30-39 years 40 years & over Sample Elements 3000 x 50.2% = 66 _________________________________________________________________________________ _ ......3% 13..... Control Characteristics Gender: .... Age: .... 2..4% 53...............Quota Sampling To select a quota sample comprising 3000 persons in country X using three control characteristics: sex............. 30-39 years ....6% = 198 ...4% = 2292 ............ the distribution pattern of the general population in country X in terms of each control characteristics is examined......... Others .. 14.4% Christianity 3000 x 76... age and level of education.................. ...

Purposive Sampling: •Purposive sampling (criterion-based sampling) Establish criteria necessary for being included in study and find sample to meet criteria •Solution: Screening Use random sampling to obtain a representative sample of larger population and then those subjects that are not members of the desired population are screened or filtered out •EX: want to study smokers but can’t identify all smokers .

non-sampling error Population variability Statistical Considerations Sophistication Needed Non-probability sampling Exploratory Larger non-sampling error High [Heterogeneous] Favorable High Low [Homogeneous] Unfavorable Low Relatively Longer High Time Budget Needed Relatively shorter Low .Probability sampling Conclusive Larger sampling errors Evaluation Criteria Nature of research Relative magnitude sampling vs.

nonresponse in questionnaire studies important • .Selection process (random or not) – most important for generalizability • Types of variables studied • how data are collected • Statistical procedures • Public relations Experimental studies use less subjects than descriptive because attrition usually less.

size. Are subjects with special characteristics necessary for your research? (age.) Can you obtain the necessary permission and cooperation from the subjects? Can you find enough subjects? Interaction among selection of subjects. expert/novice. and measures is essential for experimental studies. . treatments. etc. gender. trained/untrained.

State how many subjects were selected Describe how the subjects were selected Discuss whether any subjects were lost during the study and why Explain why the subjects were selected Describe subject characteristics that are pertinent to study – be very specific Identify procedures taken to protect the subjects .

Rubin (Marketing research 7th edition) Harper W. The World OF “Google”…. 3rd ed. Boyd.G. 1983 Overview Of Sampling Procedure. tasch (Marketing research 7th edition) Cochrane W. Sampling Techniques.Westfal . N.Y.Fairfax County Department Of Human Resources Management System. John Willey & Sons. .tanley F.David J. Luck and Ronald S. Jr Ralph .

THANK YOU! Presented By: Lalit Gautam Sandeep Sharma Alamkar Mathur Ashwani Kumar .

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