You are on page 1of 66

Chapter 1

Computer Networks
and the Internet

Introduction 1-1
Chapter 1: Introduction
Overview:
 what’s the Internet
 what’s a protocol?
 network edge
 network core
 access net, physical media
 Internet/ISP structure
 performance: loss, delay
 protocol layers, service models
 history

Introduction 1-2
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 History

Introduction 1-3
What’s the Internet: “nuts and bolts” view
 millions of connected
router
workstation
computing devices: hosts,
server
end-systems mobile
❍ PCs workstations, servers local ISP
❍ PDAs phones
running network apps
 communication links regional ISP
❍ fiber, copper, radio,
satellite
❍ transmission rate =
bandwidth
 routers: forward packets company
(chunks of data) network

Introduction 1-4
What’s the Internet: “nuts and bolts” view
 protocols control sending, router workstation
receiving of msgs server
❍ e.g., TCP, IP, HTTP, FTP, PPP mobile
 Internet: “network of local ISP
networks”
❍ loosely hierarchical
❍ public Internet versus regional ISP
private intranet
 Internet standards
❍ RFC: Request for comments
❍ IETF: Internet Engineering
Task Force company
network

Introduction 1-5
What’s the Internet: a service view
 communication
infrastructure enables
distributed applications:
❍ Web, email, games, e-
commerce, database.,
voting, file (MP3) sharing
 communication services
provided to apps:
❍ connectionless
❍ connection-oriented

 cyberspace [Gibson]:
“a consensual hallucination experienced daily by
billions of operators, in every nation, ...."
Introduction 1-6
What’s a protocol?
human protocols: network protocols:
 “what’s the time?”  machines rather than
 “I have a question” humans
 introductions  all communication
activity in Internet
governed by protocols
… specific msgs sent
… specific actions taken protocols define format,
when msgs received, order of msgs sent and
or other events received among network
entities, and actions
taken on msg
transmission, receipt
Introduction 1-7
What’s a protocol?
a human protocol and a computer network protocol:

Hi TCP connection
req
Hi
TCP connection
Got the response
time? Get http://www.awl.com/kurose-ross
2:00
<file>
time

Introduction 1-8
A closer look at network structure:

 network edge:
applications and
hosts
 network core:
❍ routers
❍ network of
networks
 access networks,
physical media:
communication links
Introduction 1-9
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 History

Introduction 1-10
The network edge:
 end systems (hosts):
❍ run application programs
❍ e.g. Web, email
❍ at “edge of network”
 client/server model
❍ client host requests, receives
service from always-on server
❍ e.g. Web browser/server;
email client/server
 peer-peer model:
❍ minimal (or no) use of
dedicated servers
❍ e.g. Gnutella, KaZaA
Introduction 1-11
Network edge: connection-oriented service

Goal: data transfer TCP service


between end systems  reliable, in-order byte-
 handshaking: setup stream data transfer
(prepare for) data ❍ loss: acknowledgements
transfer ahead of time and retransmissions
❍ Hello, hello back human  flow control:
protocol ❍ sender won’t overwhelm
❍ set up “state” in two receiver
communicating hosts  congestion control:
 TCP - Transmission ❍ senders “slow down sending
Control Protocol rate” when network
❍ Internet’s connection- congested
oriented service
Introduction 1-12
Network edge: connectionless service

Goal: data transfer App’s using TCP:


between end systems  HTTP (Web), FTP (file
❍ same as before! transfer), Telnet
 UDP - User Datagram (remote login), SMTP
Protocol : Internet’s (email)
connectionless service
❍ unreliable data
App’s using UDP:
transfer
 streaming media,
❍ no flow control
teleconferencing, DNS,
❍ no congestion control
Internet telephony

Introduction 1-13
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 History

Introduction 1-14
The Network Core
 mesh of interconnected
routers
 the fundamental
question: how is data
transferred through net?
❍ circuit switching:
dedicated circuit per
call: telephone net
❍ packet-switching: data
sent thru net in
discrete “chunks”

Introduction 1-15
Network Core: Circuit Switching

End-end resources
reserved for “call”
 link bandwidth, switch
capacity
 dedicated resources:
no sharing
 circuit-like
(guaranteed)
performance
 call setup required

Introduction 1-16
Network Core: Circuit Switching
network resources  dividing link bandwidth
(e.g., bandwidth) into “pieces”
divided into “pieces” ❍ frequency division
 pieces allocated to calls ❍ time division
 resource pieceidle if
not used by owning call
(no sharing)

Introduction 1-17
Circuit Switching: FDMA and TDMA
Example:
FDMA
4 users

frequency

time
TDMA

frequency

time
Introduction 1-18
Network Core: Packet Switching
each end-end data stream resource contention:
divided into packets  aggregate resource
 user A, B packets share demand can exceed
network resources amount available
 each packet uses full link  congestion: packets
bandwidth queue, wait for link use
 resources used as needed  store and forward:
packets move one hop
at a time
Bandwidth division into “pieces” ❍ transmit over link
Dedicated allocation
❍ wait turn at next
Resource reservation
link
Introduction 1-19
Packet Switching: Statistical Multiplexing
10 Mbs
A Ethernet statistical multiplexing C

1.5 Mbs
B
queue of packets
waiting for output
link

D E

Sequence of A & B packets does not have fixed


pattern ➨ statistical multiplexing.
In TDM each host gets same slot in revolving TDM
frame.
Introduction 1-20
Packet-switching: store-and-forward
L
R R R

 Takes L/R seconds to Example:


transmit (push out)  L = 7.5 Mbits
packet of L bits on to  R = 1.5 Mbps
link or R bps
 delay = 15 sec
 Entire packet must
arrive at router before
it can be transmitted
on next link: store and
forward
 delay = 3L/R

Introduction 1-21
Packet-switched networks: forwarding
 Goal: move packets through routers from source to
destination
❍ we’ll study several path selection (i.e. routing)algorithms
(chapter 4)
 datagram network:
❍ destination address in packet determines next hop
❍ routes may change during session
❍ analogy: driving, asking directions

 virtual circuit network:


❍ each packet carries tag (virtual circuit ID), tag
determines next hop
❍ fixed path determined at call setup time, remains fixed
thru call
❍ routers maintain per-call state
Introduction 1-22
Network Taxonomy
Telecommunication
networks

Circuit-switched Packet-switched
networks networks

FDM Networks Datagram


TDM
with VCs Networks

• Datagram network is not either connection-oriented


or connectionless.
• Internet provides both connection-oriented (TCP) and
connectionless services (UDP) to apps.
Introduction 1-23
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 History

Introduction 1-24
Access networks and physical media
Q: How to connect end
systems to edge router?
 residential access nets
 institutional access
networks (school,
company)
 mobile access networks

Keep in mind:
 bandwidth (bits per
second) of access
network?
 shared or dedicated?

Introduction 1-25
Residential access: point to point access

 Dialup via modem


❍ up to 56Kbps direct access to
router (often less)
❍ Can’t surf and phone at same
time: can’t be “always on”
 ADSL: asymmetric digital subscriber line
❍ up to 1 Mbps upstream (today typically < 256 kbps)
❍ up to 8 Mbps downstream (today typically < 1 Mbps)
❍ FDM: 50 kHz - 1 MHz for downstream
4 kHz - 50 kHz for upstream
0 kHz - 4 kHz for ordinary telephone
Introduction 1-26
Residential access: cable modems

 HFC: hybrid fiber coax


❍ asymmetric: up to 10Mbps upstream, 1 Mbps
downstream
 network of cable and fiber attaches homes to
ISP router
❍ shared access to router among homes
❍ major issue: congestion
 deployment: available via cable companies, e.g.,
MediaOne

Introduction 1-27
Residential access: cable modems

Introduction 1-28
Cable Network Architecture: Overview

Typically 500 to 5,000 homes

cable headend

home
cable distribution
network (simplified)

Introduction 1-29
Cable Network Architecture: Overview

cable headend

home
cable distribution
network (simplified)

Introduction 1-30
Cable Network Architecture: Overview

server(s)

cable headend

home
cable distribution
network

Introduction 1-31
Cable Network Architecture: Overview

FDM:
C
O
V V V V V V N
I I I I I I D D T
D D D D D D A A R
E E E E E E T T O
O O O O O O A A L

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Channels

cable headend

home
cable distribution
network

Introduction 1-32
Company access: local area networks
 company/univ local area
network (LAN) connects
end system to edge router
 Ethernet:
❍ shared or dedicated link
connects end system
and router
❍ 10 Mbs, 100Mbps,
Gigabit Ethernet
 deployment: institutions,
home LANs happening now
 LANs: chapter 5

Introduction 1-33
Wireless access networks
 shared wireless access
network connects end system
to router router
❍ via base station aka “access
point” base
 wireless LANs: station
❍ 802.11b (WiFi): 11 Mbps

 wider-area wireless access


❍ provided by telco operator
3G ~ 384 kbps
mobile

hosts

Introduction 1-34
Home networks
Typical home network components:
 ADSL or cable modem
 router/firewall/NAT
 Ethernet
 wireless access
point
wireless
to/from laptops
cable router/
cable
modem firewall
headend
wireless
access
Ethernet point
(switched)
Introduction 1-35
Physical Media
Twisted Pair (TP)
 Bit: propagates between  two insulated copper
transmitter/receiver wires
pairs ❍ Category 3: traditional
 physical link: what lies phone wires, 10 Mbps
between transmitter & Ethernet
receiver ❍ Category 5 TP:
100Mbps Ethernet
 guided media:
❍ signals propagate in solid
media: copper, fiber, coax
 unguided media:
❍ signals propagate freely,
e.g., radio

Introduction 1-36
Physical Media: coax, fiber
Coaxial cable: Fiber optic cable:
 glass fiber carrying light
 two concentric copper
pulses, each pulse a bit
conductors
 high-speed operation:
 bidirectional
❍ high-speed point-to-point
 baseband: transmission (e.g., 5 Gps)
❍ single channel on cable  low error rate: repeaters
❍ legacy Ethernet spaced far apart ; immune
 broadband: to electromagnetic noise
❍ multiple channel on cable
❍ HFC

Introduction 1-37
Physical media: radio
 signal carried in Radio link types:
electromagnetic  terrestrial microwave
spectrum ❍ e.g. up to 45 Mbps channels

 no physical “wire”  LAN (e.g., WaveLAN)


 bidirectional ❍ 2Mbps, 11Mbps
 propagation  wide-area (e.g., cellular)
environment effects: ❍ e.g. 3G: hundreds of kbps

❍ reflection  satellite
❍ obstruction by objects ❍ up to 50Mbps channel (or
❍ interference multiple smaller channels)
❍ 270 msec end-end delay
❍ geosynchronous versus
LEOS
Introduction 1-38
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 History

Introduction 1-39
Internet structure: network of networks
 roughly hierarchical
 at center: “tier-1” ISPs (e.g., UUNet, BBN/Genuity,
Sprint, AT&T), national/international coverage
❍ treat each other as equals

Tier-1 providers
also interconnect
Tier-1 at public network
providers
Tier 1 ISP
NAP access points
interconnect (NAPs)
(peer)
privately
Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP

Introduction 1-40
Tier-1 ISP: e.g., Sprint
Sprint US backbone network

Introduction 1-41
Internet structure: network of networks
 “Tier-2” ISPs: smaller (often regional) ISPs
❍ Connect to one or more tier-1 ISPs, possibly other tier-2 ISPs

Tier-2 ISPs
Tier-2 ISP pays Tier-2 ISP also peer
Tier-2 ISP privately with
tier-1 ISP for
connectivity to Tier 1 ISP each other,
rest of Internet NAP interconnect
 tier-2 ISP is at NAP
customer of
tier-1 provider Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP

Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP

Introduction 1-42
Internet structure: network of networks
 “Tier-3” ISPs and local ISPs
❍ last hop (“access”) network (closest to end systems)

local
ISP Tier 3 local
local local
ISP ISP
ISP ISP
Local and tier- Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP
3 ISPs are
customers of Tier 1 ISP
higher tier NAP
ISPs
connecting
them to rest
Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP
of Internet
local
Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP
ISP
local local local
ISP ISP ISP Introduction 1-43
Internet structure: network of networks
 a packet passes through many networks!

local
ISP Tier 3 local
local local
ISP ISP
ISP ISP
Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP

Tier 1 ISP
NAP

Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP


local
Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP
ISP
local local local
ISP ISP ISP Introduction 1-44
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 History

Introduction 1-45
How do loss and delay occur?
packets queue in router buffers
 packet arrival rate to link exceeds output link capacity
 packets queue, wait for turn

packet being transmitted (delay)

B
packets queueing (delay)
free (available) buffers: arriving packets
dropped (loss) if no free buffers
Introduction 1-46
Four sources of packet delay
 1. nodal processing:  2. queueing
❍ check bit errors ❍ time waiting at output
❍ determine output link link for transmission
❍ depends on congestion
level of router

transmission
A propagation

B
nodal
processing queueing

Introduction 1-47
Delay in packet-switched networks
3. Transmission delay: 4. Propagation delay:
 R=link bandwidth (bps)  d = length of physical link
 L=packet length (bits)  s = propagation speed in
 time to send bits into medium
link = L/R  propagation delay = d/s

transmission
A propagation

B
nodal
processing queueing
Introduction 1-48
Packet loss
 queue (aka buffer) preceding link in buffer
has finite capacity
 when packet arrives to full queue, packet is
dropped (aka lost)
 lost packet may be retransmitted by
previous node, by source end system, or not
retransmitted at all

Introduction 1-49
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 History

Introduction 1-50
Protocol “Layers”
Networks are complex!
 many “pieces”:
❍ hosts
❍ routers
❍ links of various
media
❍ applications
❍ protocols
❍ hardware,
software

Introduction 1-51
Organization of air travel

ticket (purchase) ticket (complain)

baggage (check) baggage (claim)

gates (load) gates (unload)

runway takeoff runway landing

airplane routing airplane routing


airplane routing

 a series of steps

Introduction 1-52
Organization of air travel: a different view

ticket (purchase) ticket (complain)

baggage (check) baggage (claim)

gates (load) gates (unload)

runway takeoff runway landing

airplane routing airplane routing


airplane routing

Layers: each layer implements a service


❍ via its own internal-layer actions
❍ relying on services provided by layer below
Introduction 1-53
Layered air travel: services

Counter-to-counter delivery of person+bags

baggage-claim-to-baggage-claim delivery

people transfer: loading gate to arrival gate

runway-to-runway delivery of plane

airplane routing from source to destination

Introduction 1-54
Distributed implementation of layer functionality

ticket (purchase) ticket (complain)


Departing airport

arriving airport
baggage (check) baggage (claim)

gates (load) gates (unload)

runway takeoff runway landing

airplane routing airplane routing

intermediate air traffic sites


airplane routing airplane routing

airplane routing
Introduction 1-55
Why layering?
Dealing with complex systems:
 explicit structure allows identification,
relationship of complex system’s pieces
❍ layered reference model for discussion
 modularization eases maintenance, updating of
system
❍ change of implementation of layer’s service
transparent to rest of system
❍ e.g., change in gate procedure doesn’t affect
rest of system

Introduction 1-56
Internet protocol stack
 application: supporting network
applications application
❍ FTP, SMTP, STTP
 transport: host-host data transfer transport
❍ TCP, UDP

 network: routing of datagrams from network


source to destination
❍ IP, routing protocols link
 link: data transfer between
neighboring network elements physical
❍ PPP, Ethernet
 physical: bits “on the wire”

Introduction 1-57
Layering: logical communication
Each layer: application
transport
 distributed network
 “entities” link
physical
implement network
layer functions application link
at each node transport physical
network
 entities link
perform physical
application application
actions, transport transport
exchange network network
link link
messages with physical physical
peers

Introduction 1-58
Layering: logical communication
data
E.g.: transport application
transport
transport
 take data from app
network
 add addressing, link
reliability check physical
info to form ack network
“datagram” application link
 send datagram to transport data physical
network
peer
link
 wait for peer to data
physical
application application
ack receipt
transport transport
transport
 analogy: post network network
office link link
physical physical

Introduction 1-59
Layering: physical communication
data
application
transport
network
link
physical
network
application link
transport physical
network
link
physical data
application application
transport transport
network network
link link
physical physical

Introduction 1-60
Protocol layering and data
Each layer takes data from above
 adds header information to create new data unit
 passes new data unit to layer below

source destination
M application application M message
Ht M transport transport Ht M segment
Hn Ht M network network Hn Ht M datagram
Hl Hn Ht M link link Hl Hn Ht M frame
physical physical

Introduction 1-61
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 ISPs and Internet backbones
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Internet structure and ISPs
1.8 History

Introduction 1-62
Internet History
1961-1972: Early packet-switching principles
 1961: Kleinrock - queueing  1972:
theory shows ❍ ARPAnet demonstrated
effectiveness of packet- publicly
switching ❍ NCP (Network Control
 1964: Baran - packet-
Protocol) first host-
switching in military nets host protocol
 1967: ARPAnet conceived ❍ first e-mail program
by Advanced Research ❍ ARPAnet has 15 nodes
Projects Agency
 1969: first ARPAnet node
operational

Introduction 1-63
Internet History
1972-1980: Internetworking, new and proprietary nets
 1970: ALOHAnet satellite
Cerf and Kahn’s
network in Hawaii internetworking principles:
 1973: Metcalfe’s PhD thesis ❍ minimalism, autonomy -
proposes Ethernet no internal changes
 1974: Cerf and Kahn - required to
architecture for interconnect networks
interconnecting networks ❍ best effort service
 late70’s: proprietary model
architectures: DECnet, SNA, ❍ stateless routers
XNA
❍ decentralized control
 late 70’s: switching fixed
define today’s Internet
length packets (ATM
architecture
precursor)
 1979: ARPAnet has 200 nodes
Introduction 1-64
Internet History
1980-1990: new protocols, a proliferation of networks
 1983: deployment of  new national networks:
TCP/IP Csnet, BITnet,
 1982: SMTP e-mail NSFnet, Minitel
protocol defined  100,000 hosts
 1983: DNS defined connected to
for name-to-IP- confederation of
address translation networks
 1985: FTP protocol
defined
 1988: TCP congestion
control
Introduction 1-65
Internet History
1990, 2000’s: commercialization, the Web, new apps
 Early 1990’s: ARPAnet Late 1990’s – 2000’s:
decommissioned
 more killer apps: instant
 1991: NSF lifts restrictions on
messaging, peer2peer
commercial use of NSFnet
(decommissioned, 1995)
file sharing (e.g.,
 early 1990s: Web
Naptser)
 network security to
❍ hypertext [Bush 1945, Nelson
1960’s] forefront
❍ HTML, HTTP: Berners-Lee  est. 50 million host, 100
❍ 1994: Mosaic, later Netscape million+ users
❍ late 1990’s:  backbone links running
commercialization of the Web at Gbps

Introduction 1-66