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Contents 1. Fragments: recognizing and correcting fragments 2.

Run-ons: recognizing and correcting run-ons *Practice between each content

1.1 Recognizing fragments Definition: a fragment is a group of words that does not express a complete thought. Part of a sentence should not be presented as a full sentence ending with a period or other end mark.

Examples
Fragments 1. Because we missed the train 2. After the rainfall 3. Without looking back 4. The boy wearing the green shirt Sentences 1. We were late because we missed the train. 2. After the rainfall, the river rose. 3. Sue got on the train without looking back. 4. The boy wearing the green shirt is Tim.

Practice
Decide whether each group of words is a sentence or a fragment. 1. To see the new museum was a real thrill. 2. Which Cindy got for her birthday. 3. Who won? 4. The player with the lowest score. 5. Enjoys working out at the gym.

1.2 Correcting fragments


A phrase should not be capitalized and punctuated as if it were a sentence. Phrase fragments 1. A person with great integrity 2. Followed us home

Completed sentences 1. A person with great integrity is needed. 2. A stray dog followed us home.

A subordinate clause should not be capitalized and punctuated as if it were a sentence.


Clause fragment 1. Whom I greatly respect 2. Just as we began our picnic 3. What I asked Completed sentence 1. Lee is someone whom I greatly respect. 2. The rain started just as we began our picnic 3. What I asked was impossible to do.

Words in a series should not be capitalized and punctuated as if they were a sentence.
Series fragment 1. Blueberry pie, strawberry shortcake, and cherry cheesecake Completed sentence 1. The dessert choices include blueberry pie, strawberry shortcake, and cherry cheesecake.

Practice
Decide whether each item is a phrase fragment, clause fragment, series fragment, or a sentence. 1. Wherever you want them. 2. To make friends in a new place. 3. A wide meadow, a babbling brook, and bright sunshine. 4. You succeeded.

2.1 Recognizing run-ons


Definition: a run-on sentence is two or more complete sentences that are not properly joined or separated; that is, they are not separated by an end mark, or they are separated only by a comma. Examples The coals are ready now we can begin cooking. The lettuce is thriving, the broccoli is straggly.

Practice
Identify each item as a run-on or a sentence. 1. David has a new camera, but he forgot to bring it. 2. The children played in the back yard, the swings and sandbox amused them. 3. We got three easy outs our team was up. 4. Louise did a wonderful job, we knew she would.

2.2 Correcting run-ons


5 methods to correct run-ons 1. End mark

Run-on:
What do you think will we win?

Fixed sentence:
What do you think? Will we win?

2. Comma and coordinating conjunction

Run-on:
Kelly came with us, Sue stayed home.

Fixed sentence:
Kelly came with us, but Sue stayed home.

3. Semicolon

Run-on:
The food was delicious the service was excellent.

Fixed sentence:
The food was delicious; the service was excellent.

4. One simple sentence

Run-on:
The jet was a 747 it landed gracefully.

Fixed sentence:
The jet, a 747, landed gracefully.

5. One complex sentence

Run-on:
We lost the game we had played our best.

Fixed sentence:
Although we lost the game, we had played our best.

2. Comma and coordinating conjunction

Run-on:
Kelly came with us, Sue stayed home.

Fixed sentence:
Kelly came with us, but Sue stayed home.

Practice
If a word group is a run-on sentence, write a slash / between the two sentences or independent clauses. If a sentence is correct, write C. 1. The trick amazed the group they had never seen anything like it. 2. Without saying a word, the messenger handed me an envelope. 3. We rounded the bend, the castle came into view.
Now, apply the appropriate method to fix the runons.