socioeconomic background. age.VERBAL COMMUNICATION • Uses the spoken or written word • Largely conscious • The words used vary among individuals according to culture. and education .

. anxiety. or amusement. sadness. boredom.PACE AND INTONATION •Modifies the feeling and impact of the message •The intonation can express enthusiasm. or fear. •The pace of speech may indicate interest. anger.

so we will collect it by putting a small tube into your bladder.SIMPLICITY • includes the use of commonly understood words.” “Tomorrow we need to get a sample of your urine.” . • Words as vasoconstriction or cholecystectomy are meaningful to the nurse and easy to use but are ill advised when communicating with clients “The nurses will be catheterizing you tomorrow for a urine analysis. and completeness. brevity.

” the non verbal behavior would include the nurse facing the client. and leaning forward. .CLARITY AND BREVITY • a message that is directed and simple will be more effective • clarity is saying precisely what is meant • brevity is using the fewest words necessary • When the nurse tells the client. making eye contact. “I am interested in hearing what you have to say.

TIMING AND RELEVANCE • no matter how clearly or simply words are stated or written. the timing is to be appropriate to ensure the words are heard • this involves sensitivity to the clients’ needs and concerns • another in timing is asking several questions at once .

ADAPTABILITY • spoken messages need to be altered in accordance with behavioral cues from the client • this requires astute assessment and sensitivity on the part of the nurse • it is important for the nurse to then modify her tone of speech and express concern in her facial expression while moving toward the client .

while being able to acknowledge their limitations “I don’t know the answer to that. and reliability • maybe the most important criterion of effective communication • nurses should convey confidence and certainty in what they are saying.” . but I will find someone who does. trustworthiness.CREDIBILITY • worthiness of belief.

.HUMOR • the use of humor can be a positive and powerful tool in the nurse-client relationship. it is important to consider the client’s perception of what is considered humorous. but it must be used with care • humor can be used to help clients adjust to difficult and painful situations • when using humor.

• MacDonald (2004) states that while humor and laughter can help reduce stress and anxiety in the early and recovery stages of a crisis. it may be considered offensive or distracting at a peak crisis period .