Kinetic-Molecular Theory

Postulates and Implications Chapters 13 and 14

Kinetic-Molecular Theory Postulates
1. Matter is made of particles containing mass. 2. Particles of substances are in constant, rapid, and random motion. 3. Collisions are either elastic or inelastic. 4. Temperature measures average kinetic energy.

Kinetic-Molecular Theory Postulates 5. Particles exert intermolecular forces. • • These forces are “non-existent” in gases. These forces are strong in liquids and solids. .

Comparing Two Theories Atomic Theory Everything made of particles All atoms of an element are identical Atoms are neither created nor destroyed A specific compounds has the same ratio of atoms Kinetic-Molecular Theory • Particles have mass • Particles are constantly moving • Particles collide • Particles exert forces • Temperature measures kinetic energy • • • • .

0073) • Neutron—1 AMU (1.0087) • Electron—Without Mass (5. 1 AMU = 1.Postulate 1 • Matter is made of particles containing mass.66054 x 10-24 g • Proton—1 AMU (1.486 x 10-4 AMU) .

rapid.Postulate 2 • Particles of substances are in constant. • Motion has 3 characteristics • Constant • Rapid • Random . and random motion.

1. 421) 2.Postulate 3 • Collisions are either elastic or inelastic. Inelastic—loses energy (p. Elastic—doesn’t lose energy (p. 421) .

Temperature measures average kinetic energy. Temp.. Kinetic Energy Kinetic Energy .. • • Temp.Postulate 4 4.

Quick Question • After testing two unknown substances A and B. you find the boiling temperature for substance A to be 20°C. Substance B’s boiling point is 34°C. has stronger intermolecular forces? Why? . A or B. Which substance.

Particles exert intermolecular forces. These forces are strong in liquids and solids. • • • Dispersion Forces (London Dispersion) Dipole-Dipole Forces − Ion-Dipole Hydrogen Bonding .Postulate 5 5. • • These forces are “non-existent” in gases.

Postulate 5—Dispersion • • • • Dispersion Forces Shape-induced charge (due to asymmetry) Weakest force Exists on all molecules .

Postulate 5—Dipole-Dipole • • • Dipole-Dipole Forces Permanent dispersion force (Causes asymmetry. which gives rise to partial charges (-. +) Causes some molecules to be polar • Affects solubility .

Postulate 5—Hydrogen Bonds • • • • • Hydrogen Bonds Most important biologically (induces protein folding) Assists in solubility Responsible for properties of water Strongest force .

temperature. volume.Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses) • • • Intermolecular forces “don’t apply” Describe 4 variables Amount. pressure .

just add 273.Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses) • • • • Amount—given as n= mass/molar mass Volume—given as L Temperature—given as K To convert °C to K.15 • Pressure—given as atm or torr (mm of Hg) .

Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses) • • • • • These variables lead to 4 relationships Boyle’s Law Charles’ Law Avogadro’s Law Dalton’s Law .

Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses) • • • Boyle’s Law P. P. V V .

Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses) • • • • • • Pressure has several units 1 atm 760 mm Hg 760 torr 1.325 kPa .01325 x 105 Pa 101.

V V . T.Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses) • • • Charles’ Law T.

then they contain an equal number of particles. .Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses) • • Avogadro’s Law If V. and P are held constant for 2 gases. T.

then the sum of the pressures of all the different gasses equals the total pressure.Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses) • • Dalton’s Law If more than one gas is present. Pt = p1 + p2 + p3 + … + pn • .

314 m3-Pa/mol-K 0.08206 L-atm/mol-K 62.36 L-torr/mol-K .Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses) • • • • • Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT R is a constant 8.