The Benefits of Heat Pipes in Hot & Humid Climates

Allan Westbury Managing Director S & P Coils Ltd. Leicester, UK

Presentation Contents

Problems of Hot & Humid Climatic Conditions What is a Heat Pipe? Heat Pipes & how they can HELP Conclusion

  

Problems of Hot & Humid Climates

Main influences on comfort:
 


Dry bulb temperature Air speed Air humidity Radiation

Ideal Comfort Conditions:
 

RH 40 - 60 % Temperature 20 - 23°C (68 - 75°F)

Proper humidity levels
ASHRAE Recommended

Safety margin

Health Problems

Mildew Growth

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

% Relative Humidity

Typical Ambient conditions
35°C @ 80% RH 45°C @ 30% RH 35°C @ 20% RH 20°C @ 90% RH

35°C @ 80% RH

45°C @ 30% RH

20°C @ 90% RH

35°C @ 20% RH

40 to 70% RH 45°C @ 30% RH 20°C @ 90% RH 35°C @ 20% RH . 20 to 24°C.Comfort conditions 35°C @ 80% RH Comfort condition.

Historical Air Conditioning Examples of wind towers on some older buildings. .

Modern Air Conditioning .

Dubai Convention Centre .

Pyramid Centre .

Mercato Mall .

Doha – Sheraton Hotel .

Decorative features .

Recent Practice  Air is cooled to supply conditions Warm humid air. 42°C Saturated air. 18°C Condensation .

and then cooling to 18°C the air becomes saturated and unsuitable for supply. . 42°C @ 35% RH.Recent Practice Taking a point in this envelope.

Recent Practice  If this saturated air with a high moisture content is supplied into the space we will have two major problems: .

Problem 1 The building occupants will feel very uncomfortable and health problems may arise. HOTEL Dissatisfied. at worst. unhappy customers and even potential insurance claims. lost working days due to sickness. OFFICE . Reduction in employee efficiency and.

This can manifest itself in several ways Discolouration of walls Mould growth Corrosion of metalworks Detachment of tiles etc. from walls/ceilings • • • • .Problem 2 The building fabric and fittings will deteriorate due to the high moisture levels creating excessive maintenance costs.

Dehumidifying with coils  Generally the air is overcooled Warm humid air.22°C Condensation Reheat Coil . 18. 42°C Comfortable air.

A B C D .Increase in running costs Overcooling the air and then re-heating gives rise to additional cooling & heating loads.

It also means we have to include a whole package of extra equipment and controls.The downside of reheat  The cost of reheating the air is high.  .

= increased running costs.= increased capital costs. Re-heating will require energy. = increased capital costs. Re-heating also adds equipment and complexity. This in turn means a larger chiller unit. = increased running costs. .The pay-off     Overcooling means an increased cooling load.

the economics present a large deterrent. while the theory is very attractive.The Economic Solution    So. Ideally we would like to cool the air to a comfortable temperature and remove moisture. but by using heat pipes it can be achieved. but without the need for expensive reheat. It sounds impossible. .

Heat Pipes    The principle of heat pipe operation Heat Pipes and dehumidification Heat Pipes and heat recovery .

.What is a Heat Pipe ?  A heat pipe is an extremely efficient conductor of heat.  By using the latent capacity of the fluid the heat pipe transfers heat at a very high rate.

Basic principle of operation A simple heat pipe comprises a hollow tube partly filled with a working fluid Heat out Heat out Using the latent capacity of the fluid. we can transfer large amounts of heat very rapidly from a hot point to a cold point on the tube wall. Heat in Heat in .

Summary of Characteristics    Heat is transferred by latent means giving a heat transfer rate of around 1000 times that of a solid copper rod Vaporisation and condensation take place at the same temperature allowing high heat transfer at low temperature differences Heat pipes without wicks (Thermosyphons) rely on gravity to return the condensed liquid. .

.) Heat Pipes for enhanced dehumidification.Heat Pipe applications 1.

Adding a Heat Pipe  The heat pipe improves the efficiency of the system. 18°C 42°C 36°C 12°C .

5°C 18/14.8°C 36/27. Heat Pipe pre-cool Airflow Cooling Coil Heat Pipe re-heat Airflow 42/28.1°C 12/11.Heat Pipe in practice  Plan view of cooling coil.1°C .

8oC Airflow .5oC 36 / 27.1 C 42 / 28.18 / 14.1 C o o 12 / 11.

 „Horseshoe‟ Heat Pipes are used either for original supply or for retrofit applications.  . The unit will be installed around an existing cooling coil.2-Row „Horseshoe‟.

.2-Row „Combi Coil‟.

3 2 1 4 .Heat Pipe Effect 1-2 Heat Pipe pre-cool 2-3 Cooling coil 3-4 Heat Pipe re-heat Resultant energy saving of up to 30%.

In Practice If the heatpipe is designed for a maximum temperature. What would the off condition be at other conditions? .

  . This in turn means removing need for additional reheat.Economic Design  Base design on commonest conditions not maximum conditions. For close control some additional cooling may be required.

Bin Data  By using Bin Data we can identify the commonest or average condition. .

5kW . Cooling load .2kW Total load . 32 °C @ 58% RH.58.Worked Example Based on average ambient condition.7.3kW Heating load .51.

40%RH Heat Pipe Pre-cool .7.4kW .0kW Saving 14.2kW Supply air Re-heat .8°Cload .0 m3/s Air on: 40/27.Worked Example Air volume Heat Pipe.1kW New Clg New Htg load .44.7. Add in the : 4.8°C.2kW Heat Pipe to room: 20/14.

Heating load .0kW Saving 19kW .5 kW secondary cooling unit Cooling load . then a required pre-cool : 9.54.5 kW Heat Pipe re-heat : 9.3kW can trim the temperature.Worked Example At the final airconditions:is If alternative condition Heat Pipeat 18 °C.

5 C (45% RH) o Fan Coil Unit 18 / 14oC (65% RH) FAHU Air Handling Unit 18 / 14 C (65% RH) o Duct Mounted Coil 18 / 14 C (65% RH) o .Secondary Cooling Schematic Primary Cooling Secondary Cooling 19.5oC (60%RH) 38 / 27.5 / 14.

Nett energy savings of around 30% compared to standard cooling and reheat.Summary       Requires no energy to run. Lower cooling load = smaller chiller/ compressor. Controlled by the cooling coil. . being “driven” by the cooling coil. Easy installation. Design for average conditions to eliminate reheat.

Heat Pipe applications 2. .) Heat and “coolth” recovery.

 Efficiencies of up to 65% can be achieved giving significant energy savings. .Heat and “coolth” recovery Used to transfer heat between supply and exhaust air streams where : There is a large difference between supply and exhaust temperatures. There are high air volumes involved.

Basic design features     The Heat Pipe unit straddles the supply and exhaust ducts A centre tube plate prevents cross contamination between airflows No pump requirement to transfer the heat as with a run around coil system Airstreams must be in counterflow .

Orientation   Available in both vertical & horizontal arrangements. Exhaust Air Supply Air . The warmer airstream must be at the bottom in the vertical mode.

Horizontal orientation .

.Benefits      Requires no energy to run. Easy condensation removal. No maintenance. Can be sized to suit the ductwork or AHU. No cross contamination.

Typical efficiencies – 50% to 60 % By wrapping The Heat Pipe around a cooling coil we bypass a certain amount of heat. Nett energy savings .around 30 % . saving on the cooling load and giving free reheat.Conclusion      Heat Pipes are extremely efficient heat transfer devices By installing across supply and exhaust ducts we can recover waste energy.

Al Ain Al Hamad .Dubai Coral Beach Resort .Shj.S.Shj.Dubai Majid Al Futtaim Verger Delport Viking Viking Al Futtaim W.Completed projects Contractor Garmco BAH Al Hamad . SAS Raddison Muscat Thermo . Atkins RPW RPW Arab Consultants Sharjah Municipality Dubai Municipality Mario & Ass. .ADH Al Nahdha Shopping Sharjah Mega Mall Sharjah Cricket Stadium ETA Carrier Gibca .Shj. Al Ansari Bldg.Sharjah Sensaire .Delhi Novair Carrier Petra 5 37 1 New Retrofit Retrofit Grand Hayat . Pool Children's City City Center Industrial city .Sharjah Spectrum . GHQ Syna dev.Shj. Al Hamad . Artek Consultant AHU Supplier York Clever Saiver SKM Carrier Clever Clever Clever SKM Clever Saiver York Viking Viking SKM Qty. Swimm.Mumbai Le-Meridian .Dubai Al Hamed Nael Est. 8 4 2 3 4 2 2 6 3 2 145 2 2 1 Type of Project New Retrofit Retrofit Retrofit New New New New New Retrofit New New New New Project Aluminium Store Pyramid shopping center Raddison Crown Plaza MW-1699 Hiltonia Beach Samar Tower. Geco .

Wedding hall West Side Marina Neighborhood centre Ruler's villa Dawoodi Bohra center .ADH RPW Shadid Engg. 8 33 90 6 8 4 24 6 30 1 1 2 Type of Project New New New New New New New New New New New New Project Spinneys .Completed projects (Cont.Dubai Gibca .Sharjah Dhabi Contracting McQuay FNC Bu-Haleeba Junker Ian Banhem Al Turath Mott / EMS Arkiteknik Gemac Artek SKM Clever McQuay Dunham Bush Mekar Junker 8 14 6 41 2 8 New New New New Retrofit New Kharbash Bldg. Deptt.) Contractor Transgulf ETA Geco . Consultant RPW RMJM Cab .Sharjah B K Gulf Sensaire .Sharjah RMJM Arif & Bintouk AHU Supplier York Clever SKM Interklima Carrier Clever York Euroclima Mekar Aftron Carrier SKM Qty.. Villa at Jebel Dana SKM . Pvt. RMJM DPA Shadid Engg.Jumeira World Convention centre Indoor Sports Hall World Convention centre Novotel & Ibis Hotel Coral Beach Resort Royal Mirage hotel Dubai Women's association Exhibition Hall 1 & 2 DPA club Emaar bank pvt.Sharjah Transgulf Remco Mekar Al Futtaim Carrier Gulf Star .

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Leicester. UK .HEAT PIPES: The Benefits of Heat Pipes in Hot & Humid Climates Allan Westbury Managing Director S & P Coils Ltd.

60 % Temperature 20 .75°F)  Ideal Comfort Conditions:   .23°C (68 .Problems of Hot & Humid Climatic Conditions  Main influences on comfort:     Dry bulb temperature Air speed Air humidity Radiation RH 40 .