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Subject: Intro.

to Management Information System Lecturer: Zaipul Anwar Bin Zainu


Teaching materials:

Tel:019-3262427 E-mail:zaipulanwar@iprom.unikl.edu.my, zaipul@gmail.com Room: 2211 Website: http://www.zaipul.com Facebook: Zaipul Anwar Consultation: By Appointment (or through email, chat or Facebook). In the future hopefully through eLearning. http://eLearning.zaipul.com
Lectures, Websites, Softwares, Videos, Movies and Music(?) Assignment/project/class discussion/case study Lab activity

Ease the managing task Guide for problem solving & decision making Advance in carrier. Realise opportunities and meet personal and company goals. In Business: used in all functional areas. CBIS important for type of job.

SUBJECT OBJECTIVE To enable students to understand basic information technology concepts and participate in developing information systems solutions to business problems. To assist students to understand the fundamental concepts of realworld information systems and to demonstrate the potential advantages of state-of-the-art information technology applications in organizational. SUBJECT SYNOPSIS The foundations of information systems. Information management and its strategic role in organizations. The technical foundations of information systems; elements of information processing and the telecommunication. The contemporary tools, techniques and approaches used to build information systems.

COURSE CONTENT
Management information systems (MIS); challenges and opportunities, the strategic role of information systems in organizations, and business processes Management of information and decision making; ethical and social impact of information systems. Computers and information processing; information systems software, and managing data resources Telecommunications and the internet networking, redesigning the organization with information systems and ensuring quality with information systems. Managing knowledge and enhancing management decision making. Controlling information systems and managing international information systems.

REFERENCE BOOKS Ralph M. Stair, G.W Reynolds, 2008, Principles of Information System, A Managerial Approach, Thomson Learning (Text Book). Kenneth C.L. and Jane P.L., 1998. Management Information Systems: New Approaches to Organization and Technology, Fifth Edition, Prentice Hall. Sarah, E., Sawyer and Stacey, C., 1998, Management Information Systems for the Information Age, Irwin/McGraw-Hill, Boston, Massachusetts, ISBN: 0-07025465-6. Post, G.V. and David L.A., 1997, Management Information Systems: Solving Business Problems with Information Technology, Irwin/McGraw Hill, Illinois.

Introduction to Management Information Systems

Data vs. Information


Data Raw facts Distinct pieces of information, usually formatted in a special way Information A collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves

Data thermometer readings of temperature taken every hour: 16.0, 17.0, 16.0, 18.5, 17.0,15.5.
Transformation

Information todays high: 18.5 todays low: 15.5

Data
Alphanumeric data Image data Audio data Video data

Represented by
Numbers, letters, and other characters Graphic images or pictures Sound, noise, tones Moving images or pictures

Data

Transformation

Information

accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, relevant, simple, timely, verifiable, accessible, secure

You want the information about you in a health information system to be:
As accurate as possible (e.g. your age, sex) As complete as possible

Relevant
To be reliable Should be available in a timely manner (e.g. information

about your drug allergies are available before your operation!)

Definition
A set of elements or components that interact to

accomplish goals A combination of components working together

Customer Maintenance Component

Order Entry Component

Customer Support System


Catalog Maintenance Component Order Fulfillment Component

(1) Refers to a combination of components working together. For example, a computer system includes both hardware and software. A Windows system is a personal computer running the Windows operating system. A desktop publishing system is a computer running desktop publishing software. (2) Short for computer system. (3) Short for operating system. (4) An organization or methodology. The binary numbering system, for instance, is a way to count using only two digits

Inputs Processing mechanisms Outputs

Elements System

Inputs
Actors, director, staff, sets, equipment

Processing elements Filming, editing, special effects, distribution

Goal

Outputs
Finished film delivered to movie studio Entertaining movie, film awards, profits

Movie

System boundary
Defines the system and distinguishes it from everything

else

System types
Simple vs. complex
Open vs. closed Stable vs. dynamic Adaptive vs. non-adaptive Permanent vs. temporary

Efficiency
A measure of what is produced divided by what is

consumed (eg. Efficiency of a motor is the energy produced divided by what is consumed)

Effectiveness
A measure of the extent to which a system achieves its

goals

System performance standard


A specific objective of the system

Figure 1

Figure 1.5b

System variable
A quantity or item that can be controlled by the

decision maker E.g. the price a company charges for a product

System parameter
A value or quantity that cannot be controlled by

the decision maker E.g., cost of a raw material

Model
An abstraction or an approximation that is used

to represent reality

Types of models

Narrative (aka descriptive) Physical Schematic Mathematical


Next slide

Make understanding complex systems easier (simplifies) Can be used to design make models of new systems so can refine them Makes communication about systems easier (e.g. a picture can communicate a thousand words)

Definition A set of interrelated elements or components that collect (input), manipulate (process), and disseminate (output) data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective (IS) Pronounced as separate letters, and short for Information Systems or Information Services. For many companies, IS is the name of the department responsible for computers, networking and data management. Other companies refer to the department as IT (Information Technology) and MIS (Management Information Services).

Environment Organisation Input Processing Feedback Output

External Environment

People

Organisation

Information System

Technology

Input
The activity of gathering and capturing data Whatever goes into the computer

Processing
Converting or transforming data into useful outputs

Output
Useful information, usually in the form of documents

and/or reports Anything that comes out of a computer

(n) Whatever goes into the computer. Input can take a variety of forms, from commands you enter on a keyboard to data from another computer or device. A device that feeds data into a computer, such as a keyboard or mouse, is called an input device. (v) The act of entering data into a computer

(n) Anything that comes out of a computer. Output can be meaningful information or gibberish, and it can appear in a variety of forms -- as binary numbers, as characters, as pictures, and as printed pages. Output devices include display screens, loudspeakers, and printers. (v) To give out. For example, display screens output images, printers output print, and loudspeakers output sounds.

Feedback
Output that is used to make changes to input or

processing activities

Forecasting
A proactive approach to feedback Use for estimating future sales or inventory needs

Manual systems still widely used


E.g., some investment analysts manual draw charts and

trend lines to assist them in making investment decisions


Computerized systems
E.g., the above trends lines can be drawn by computer

Evolution
Many computerized system began as manual systems E.g., directory assistance (911)

A CBIS is composed of

Hardware Software Databases Telecommunications People Procedures

Together they are


Configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process

data into information

Five parts
Hardware Software Database Telecommunications Networks

Five parts
Hardware Software Database Telecommunications Networks

Hardware Computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities The objects that you can actually touch, like disks, disk drives, display screens, keyboards, printers, boards, and chips.

Hardware refers to objects that you can actually touch, like disks, disk drives, display screens, keyboards, printers, boards, and chips. In contrast, software is untouchable. Software exists as ideas, concepts, and symbols, but it has no substance. Books provide a useful analogy. The pages and the ink are the hardware, while the words, sentences, paragraphs, and the overall meaning are the software. A computer without software is like a book full of blank pages -- you need software to make the computer useful just as you need words to make a book meaningful.

Five parts
Hardware Software Database Telecommunications Networks

Software Computer programs that govern/determine/control the operation of the computer Computer instructions or data

Software is computer instructions or data. Anything that can be stored electronically is software. The storage devices and display devices are hardware. The terms software and hardware are used as both nouns and adjectives. For example, you can say: "The problem lies in the software," meaning that there is a problem with the program or data, not with the computer itself. You can also say: "It's a software problem.

The distinction between software and hardware is sometimes confusing because they are so integrally linked. Clearly, when you purchase a program, you are buying software. But to buy the software, you need to buy the disk (hardware) on which the software is recorded. Software is often divided into two categories. Systems software includes the operating system and all the utilities that enable the computer to function. Applications software includes programs that do real work for users. For example, word processors, spreadsheets, and database management systems fall under the category of applications software.

Five parts
Hardware Software Database Telecommunications Networks

Database An organized collection of facts and information A collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data

A database is a collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data. You can think of a database as an electronic filing system. Traditional databases are organized by fields, records, and files. A field is a single piece of information; a record is one complete set of fields; and a file is a collection of records. For example, a telephone book is analogous to a file. It contains a list of records, each of which consists of three fields: name, address, and telephone number.

An alternative concept in database design is known as Hypertext. In a Hypertext database, any object, whether it be a piece of text, a picture, or a film, can be linked to any other object. Hypertext databases are particularly useful for organizing large amounts of disparate information, but they are not designed for numerical analysis. To access information from a database, you need a database management system (DBMS). This is a collection of programs that enables you to enter, organize, and select data in a database.

Five parts
Hardware Software Database Telecommunications Networks

Telecommunications
The electronic transmission of signals for

communications; enables organizations to link computer systems into effective networks Refers to all types of data transmission, from voice to video

Five parts
Hardware Software Database Telecommunications Networks

Network
Used to connect computers and computer

equipment in a building, around the country, across the world, to enable electronic communications A group of two or more computer systems linked together

There are many types of computer networks, including: local-area networks (LANs) : The computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building). wide-area networks (WANs) : The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves.

In addition to these types, the following characteristics are also used to categorize different types of networks: topology : The geometric arrangement of a computer system. Common topologies include a bus, star, and ring. protocol : The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communicate. One of the most popular protocols for LANs is called Ethernet. Another popular LAN protocol for PCs is the IBM token-ring network . architecture : Networks can be broadly classified as using either a peer-to-peer or client/server architecture.

Computers on a network are sometimes called nodes. Computers and devices that allocate resources for a network are called servers.

Internet

The worlds largest telecommunications network A network of networks Free exchange of information A global network connecting millions of computers.

Intranet
A network that uses Internet technology within an

organization A network belonging to an organization

People
The most important element in most computer-

based information systems Includes people who manage, run, program, and maintain the system E.g., IT professionals (you!)

Procedures
Includes the strategies, policies, methods, and

rules for using the CBIS

Types
Transaction processing systems E-commerce systems Management information systems Decision support systems Expert systems

Transaction
Any business-related exchange E.g., generating a weekly payroll

Transaction processing system (TPS)


An organized collection of people, procedures,

software, databases, and devices used to record completed for for business related exchanges

Hours worked Payroll transaction processing Pay rate Payroll checks

Types
Transaction processing systems E-commerce systems Management information systems Decision support systems Expert systems

E-commerce
Involves any business transaction executed electronically Conducting business on-line For example, between
Companies Companies and consumers Business and the public sector Consumers and the public sector

Example for placing a purchase order

Types
Transaction processing systems E-commerce systems Management information systems Decision support systems Expert systems

An MIS is
An organized collection of people, procedures,

software, databases, and devices used to routine information to managers and decision makers

Marketing management information system Common databases

Manufacturing management Information system

Financial management Information system

Order management information system

TPS

MIS is short for management information system or management information services, and pronounced as separate letters MIS refers to a class of software that provides managers with tools for organizing and evaluating their department. Typically, MIS systems are written in COBOL and run on mainframes or minicomputers. Within companies and large organizations, the department responsible for computer systems is sometimes called the MIS department. Other names for MIS include IS (Information Services) and IT (Information Technology).

Types
Transaction processing systems E-commerce systems Management information systems Decision support systems Expert systems

A DSS is
An organized collection of people, procedures,

software, databases, and devices used to support problem-specific decision making

A DSS helps a manger do the right thing

Types
Transaction processing systems E-commerce systems Management information systems Decision support systems Expert systems

An expert system is
A computer application that performs a task that would

otherwise be performed by a human expert gives the computer the ability to make suggestions and to act like an expert in a particular field Examples: diagnose human illnesses, make financial forecasts, schedule routes for delivery vehicles

Expert systems typically include artificial intelligence (next slide)

AI is
A branch of computer science concerned with

making computers behave like humans Term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Draws from many areas, including cognitive psychology

Artificial intelligence includes games playing: programming computers to play games such as chess and checkers expert systems : programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms) natural language : programming computers to understand natural human languages neural networks : Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal brains robotics : programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuli

Attempted to replace humans in decision making However did not take into account
How humans actually reason Human information needs (doctors do not want

their decision making replaced, but rather want it supported)

Systems development
The activity of creating or modifying an existing business

system

Systems investigation and analysis


Defines the problems and opportunities of an existing

system

Systems design
Determine how a new system will work to meet business

needs

Systems implementation
Creating and acquiring system components

defined in the design

Systems maintenance and review


Checks a modifies the system so that it continues

to meet changing business needs