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Survey of CCA-Treated Wood in the C&D Waste Stream

CCA TAG Meeting May 13, 2004 Orlando, Florida

Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management A Type I (Statewide) Research Center created by the Florida Legislature in 1988

The Centers mission is to sponsor and conduct research in the area of solid and hazardous waste management. We work with faculty at nine universities.

Principal research areas include:

Construction & Demolition Debris Electronic Waste Hazardous Waste Management Incineration Landfills Medical Waste Management

Municipal Solid Waste Management Pollution Prevention Recycling and Reuse Socioeconomic Issues Special Wastes Waste Reduction

Current CCA Research Projects

Extent of CCA-Treated Wood Used for Commercial Mulch Helena Solo-Gabriele, Ph.D., P.E. Timothy Townsend, Ph.D.

University of Miami

University of Florida

Management and Disposal Options for CCATreated Wood Waste Helena Solo-Gabriele, Ph.D., P.E. Timothy Townsend, Ph.D.

University of Miami

University of Florida

Arsenic Uptake Released From CCA-Treated Lumber by Florida Vegetable Crops Aziz Shiralipour, Ph.D.

University of Florida/IFAS School of Forest Resources and Conservation

Survey Team

Cheryl Baker Marcia Marwede Rosemary McDaniel Diana Reichenbach Rhonda Rogers John Schert Kim Stenger Dion Weaver

Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection:

Suzanne Boroff Bill Hinkley Lee Martin Chris McGuire Richard Tedder

Survey Team

University of Miami:
Gary Jacobi Tomoyuki Shibata Dr.Helena SoloGabriele

University of Florida:
Kim Cochran Sreeram Jonnalagadda Aaron Jordan Dr. Tim Townsend Qiyong Xu

Survey Team Organizational/Safety Meeting Feb 18, 2004

Survey Team

FCSHWM Survey Team

The Contribution of Wood to C&D Debris


Yard Waste New Construction Demolition

Survey of Disposal Facilities in Florida

Provide data/information on the occurrence of CCA-treated wood in the waste stream.

Survey of Disposal Facilities

23 facilities were visited across the state between February 26 May 4

Class III landfills C&D landfills Materials Recycling Facilities (MRFs) Class I landfill (one facility)

Staff observed that there is very little difference in the type of waste accepted at Class III landfills and C&D landfills.


Recycling Facilities

Survey of Disposal Facilities

20 Counties visited
Bay Broward Columbia Dixie Flagler Gulf Hernando Leon Liberty Marion Manatee Nassau Okaloosa Palm Beach Pasco Polk Putnam Santa Rosa Sarasota Suwanee

Survey of Disposal Facilities

Preliminary Data!!

Total # of loads observed = 342 Est. total volume of all loads = 6501 yd3
# of loads containing wood = 319 or 93% (319/342) Est. total volume of wood = 1566 yd3 or 24% (1566/6501) # of loads contained treated wood = 141 or 41% (141/342) Est. total volume of treated wood = 261 yd3 or (261/6501)



Seems about right based on previous research by Townsend and Solo-Gabriele.

Wood Mix Untreated vs. Treated 83% untreated 17% treated wood

Survey of Disposal Facilities

Due to safety issues, the source of the loads (residential/ commercial, construction/ demolition/ renovation, etc.) could not be determined for all loads.

Dedicated Loads (Deck/Dock)

Dedicated Loads
Of the 342 total loads observed, 141 of the loads contained treated wood. Of the 141 loads containing wood, there
were 9 loads (6.3%) where the fraction of treated wood was greater than 80% of the total volume of the load. Of the 141 loads containing wood, there were 5 loads (3.5%) where the fraction of treated wood was greater than 98% of the total volume of the load.

So, the PRELIMINARY data indicates that only 1.5% of the 342 loads were dedicated loads.

Dedicated load from a dock builder

The identification and removal of CCA-treated wood is VERY difficult in some instances.

Identification of treated wood is difficult when the wood is painted.

End tags help identify CCA-treated wood

Is it CCA, ACQ or Copper Azole?

Color differences between untreated and treated wood (NOT WEATHERED)

Mixed wood debris

Weathering and paint make identification difficult

Treated wood may be hidden in landscaping and yard waste

Survey of Disposal Facilities

How was CCA-treated wood identified?
Of the 141 loads that contained treated wood:
63% were identified by the greenish hue 37% were from a structure that is typically treated (fence, deck, dock, etc.) 10% were identified through consultation with landfill staff, hauler, or other expert 5% were identified by end tags
*note: some loads were identified using more than one method

Survey of Disposal Facilities

Survey of Disposal Facilities

Borate treated wood for interior use only

Survey of Disposal Facilities

Survey of Disposal Facilities

Survey of Disposal Facilities

Survey of Disposal Facilities

How waste enters MRFs

Waste Sorting at MRFs

Wood separated from other waste at MRFs

A concrete tipping floor such as this makes picking and sorting easier

Some landfills have more area for walking around the waste to sort out recyclables

Most landfills have little room for sorting waste after tipping

Phone Survey
The team contacted approximately 500 businesses that typically dispose of wood.

Businesses that participated

Contractors 14 Decks 6 Demolition 5 Docks 31 Fencing 140 Marine 34 Woodworks - 2

Insert photo

Typical Uses

Decks, Boardwalks

Typical Uses


Typical Uses


Typical Uses

Utility Poles

Phone Survey Results

How much CCA-treated wood is being discarded?

General contractors reported CCA-treated wood was in SOME of their loads Deck Builders reported that nearly ALL the decks were CCA-treated Demolition Contractors reported that VERY FEW of their loads contained CCA-treated wood Dock Builders reported that MOST docks were CCA-treated

Fence Builders
21% reported less than half of their discarded wood waste was CCA-treated 2% reported that half of their discarded wood was CCA-treated 38% reported that most of their discarded wood waste was CCA-treated 39% were unsure how much of their discarded wood was CCA-treated

Marine Contractors
14% said a small amount of their wood waste was CCA-treated 12% said most of their wood waste was CCAtreated 56% said all of their wood waste was CCAtreated 18% were unsure how much of their discarded wood was CCA-treated

Where is the discarded wood going?

Landfilled - 51% Picked up by hauler 24% Placed in dumpster 7% Taken to C&D facility 5% Burned - 3% Picked up by collection service - 3% Recycled - 3% Unknow n - 3% Other - 1% 1% 3% 3% 51% 24%

7% 5% 3% 3%

Waste wood disposed in a roll-off

Residential Collection
Some residential treated wood waste is already being hauled to a wasteto-energy plant or lined MSW landfill through curbside collection.

Residential Collection

Some landfills indicate they do not accept treated wood


Arena Landfill and Sand, Crestview Bayside of Ocala, Ocala Coastal Landfill Disposal of Florida, Hudson Deland Landfill, Deland Delta Recycling, Pompano Beach Dixie County Transfer Station and C&D Site, Cross City Five Points Landfill, Port St. Joe Lena Road Manatee County Landfill, Bradenton Leon County South Landfill, Tallahassee Liberty County Landfill, Bristol Live Oak C&D Landfill, Live Oak Pasco County Landfill, Springhill Pasco Lakes Landfill, Wesley Chapel Polk County North Central Landfill Facility, Winter Haven Putnam County Central Landfill, Palatka Sandhill Recycling, Fernandina Beach Santa Rosa Central Landfill, Milton Sarasota County Central Landfill, Nokomis Sun Recycling, Dania Sun Recycling, Lantana Sunshine Grove Road C&D Landfill, Brooksville Waste Recyclers of North Florida, Freeport Winfield Southwest Facility, Lake City

And to all the businesses that gave of their time to answer the phone survey